CR_Ch.1--Scientific Understanding of Behaviour Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CR_Ch.1--Scientific Understanding of Behaviour Deck (15):
1

alternative explanation

Part of causal inference; a potential alternative cause of an observed relationship between variables.

2

applied research

Research conducted to address practical problems and potential solutions

3

authority

As an alternative to the scientific method of acquiring knowledge, accepting anything learned from supposed authority figures (e.g., news media, books, government officials, or religious figures).

4

basic research

Research that attempts to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behaviour.

5

covariation of cause and effect

Part of causal inference; observing that a change in one variable is accompanied by a change in a second variable.

6

empiricism

Use of objective observations to answer a question about the nature of behaviour.

7

falsifiable

Capable of being shown to be false when tested using scientific methods; a good scientific idea or theory should be falsifiable.

8

goals of scientific research

Within psychology and the behavioural sciences are four geenral goals of scientific research: (1) to describe behaviour, (2) to predict behaviour, (3) to determine the causes of behaviour, and (4) to understand or explain behaviour.

9

intuition

Unquestioning acceptance of what your personal judgement or a single story about one person's experience tells you about the world.

10

peer review

The process of judging the scientific merit of research through review by peers of the researcher (other scientists with the expertise to evaluate the research).

11

program evaluation

Research designed to evaluate programs (e.g., social reforms, innovations) that are designed to produce certain changes or outcomes in a target population.

12

pseudoscience

Claims that are made on the basis of evidence that is designed to appear scientific; such evidence is not based on the priniciples of the scientific method, however.

13

replicate

To repeat a research study to determine whether the results can be duplicated.

14

scientific skepticism

The concept that ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results from scientific investigations.

15

temporal precendence

Part causal inference; the cause precedes the effect in a time sequence.