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Flashcards in Customs Regional Study Guide Deck (186):
1

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the cursus honorum?

course of honors - steps you take to make it to the highest jobs (from bottom to top - quaestor, praetor, consul)

2

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the consul?

two men - executives - elected yearly

3

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the praetor?

judges (8 elected yearly)

4

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the quaestor?

treasurers (20 elected yearly)

5

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the aedile?

in charge of roads and public games (4 elected yearly)

6

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the censor?

2 elected every five years for 18 months - in charge of taking the census and public morals

7

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the dictator?

had absolute power in times of emergency; normally ruled 6 months maximum

8

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the magister equitum?

master of the horse/cavalry - assistant to dictator

9

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the senator?

must be a praetor to enter - for life

10

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the tribune?

10 elected yearly - only plebeians can run - can veto the senate

11

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the patricians/optimates?

highest class

12

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the equites?

business class

13

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the plebians/populares?

lower class

14

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the patron?

patron

15

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the cliens?

client

16

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the salutatio?

visit of client to patron’s house

17

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the sportula?

cold food basket given to client when he is received by patron in his atrium

18

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the deductio?

patron leads clients to forum

19

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the paterfamilias?

head of family (family includes wife, children, slaves and property)

20

In the Roman Government/social structure, what was/were the patria potestas?

power (of life and death in early times) of paterfamilias over family

21

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the metae?

turning posts

22

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the spina?

backbone around which they raced

23

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the ova et delphines?

eggs and dolphins (wood or bronze) used as lap counters

24

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the number of laps in a usual race?

7

25

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the maximum number of people that could be held in the circus maximus?

250,000

26

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the ludi circenses?

chariot races

27

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the factiones?

racing companies

28

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the colors of the factiones?

red (russata), white (albata), blue (veneta), green (prasina)

29

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the original factiones?

red, white

30

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the longest lasting factiones?

blue, green

31

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the circus maximus is between which two hills?

the Palatine and Aventine hills

32

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the white cloth dropped to start race?

mappa

33

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the biga?

2 horse chariot; quadriga - 4 horse chariot; auriga - charioteer

34

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the curriculum?

successfully completed lap

35

In Chariot Racing, what was/were the carceres?

starting gates

36

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the Myrmillones?

fought with helmet, oblong shield, sword, fish crest on helmet. Usually fought the retiarius or Thracians.

37

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the Retiarii?

lightly clad, armed with a net and trident. Usually fought Myrmillones or Secutores.

38

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the Samnites?

oblong shield, visored helmet, sword.

39

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the Thracians?

small round shield, curved scimitar.

40

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the Bestiarii?

hunters - fought wild beasts

41

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the Essedarii?

rode chariots with 2 horses.

42

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the Andabatae?

heavily armed, but can’t see out of visored helmet.

43

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the Laquearii?

armed with lasso and a curved piece of wood.

44

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the Secutores?

“pursuers” - like Samnite but without the neck protector

45

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the Hoplomachi?

full-armed with a breast-plate and visored helmet.

46

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the rudis?

wooden sword given to gladiators on their retirement.

47

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the lanista?

gladiator trainer.

48

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the editor munerum?

giver of games.

49

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the arena/harena?

sand put down to absorb the blood from a gladiator match.

50

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the venationes?

hunts where Bestiarii fought wild beasts.

51

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the premere pollicem?

to press the thumb against the forefinger - crowd wants to spare gladiators life

52

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the vertere pollicem?

turning the thumb upwards or towards the chest - to signify the death stroke

53

In Gladiator Games, when were the gladiator fights were brought to Rome?

in 264 BC

54

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the gladiator fights originally for?

funerals

55

In Gladiator Games, what was/were the naumachiae?

mock naval battles - they flooded the arena

56

In the Roman Baths (Thermae/Balneae), what was/were the apodyterium?

dressing room

57

In the Roman Baths (Thermae/Balneae), what was/were the hypocausta?

furnace

58

In the Roman Baths (Thermae/Balneae), what was/were the caldarium?

hot bath

59

In the Roman Baths (Thermae/Balneae), what was/were the frigidarium?

cold bath

60

In the Roman Baths (Thermae/Balneae), what was/were the unctorium?

scraping room/ massage

61

In the Roman Baths (Thermae/Balneae), what was/were the strigil?

scraper

62

In the Roman Baths (Thermae/Balneae), what was/were the palaestra?

exercise area

63

In a Roman School, what was/were the ludus?

elementary school

64

In a Roman School, what was/were the litterator?

elementary school teacher

65

In a Roman School, what was/were the paedagogus?

slave who carries books to school

66

In a Roman School, what was/were the grammaticus?

upper school teacher

67

In a Roman School, what was/were the rhetor?

teacher of public speaking

68

In a Roman School, what was/were the stylus and tabula (tabella)?

pen and notebook

69

In a Roman Army, what was/were the century?

smallest unit of a legion

70

In a Roman Army, what was/were the maniple?

double a century (later dropped in favor of a cohort)

71

In a Roman Army, what was/were the cohort?

6 times a century

72

In a Roman Army, what was/were the legion?

basic fighting unit of the Roman army

73

In a Roman Army, what was/were the contubernium?

6-8 men who share a tent (part of a century)

74

In a Roman Army, what was/were the dux?

general

75

In a Roman Army, what was/were the imperator?

victorious general

76

In a Roman Army, what was/were the legatus?

legionary commander

77

In a Roman Army, what was/were the centurio?

leader of a century

78

In a Roman Army, what was/were the optio?

2nd in command to a centurio

79

In a Roman Army, what was/were the toga picta?

worn by victorious generals

80

In a Roman Army, what was/were the tesserae?

passwords

81

In a Roman Army, what was/were the signum?

standard

82

In a Roman Army, what was/were the signifier?

holder of standard (of a century or cohort)

83

In a Roman Army, what was/were the aquila?

silver or bronze eagle-standard (of a legion)

84

In a Roman Army, what was/were the aquilifer?

holder of the eagle

85

In a Roman Army, what was/were the cornicen?

horn blower

86

In a Roman Army, what was/were the vexillum?

flag

87

In a Roman Army, what was/were the pedites?

infantry

88

In a Roman Army, what was/were the equites?

cavalry

89

In a Roman Army, what was/were the scorpio?

dart thrower (standing crossbow used by one man)

90

In a Roman Army, what was/were the ballista?

dart or stone throwing siege engine, larger than a scorpio

91

In a Roman Army, what was/were the onager?

siege engine (like a catapult), threw boulders; means “wild ass” for its kick

92

In a Roman Army, what was/were the catapulta?

siege engine which hurled javelins

93

In a Roman Army, what was/were the gladius?

sword

94

In a Roman Army, what was/were the scutum?

shield

95

In a Roman Army, what was/were the galea?

helmet (originally only made of leather)

96

In a Roman Army, what was/were the cassis?

helmet (originally only made of metal)

97

In a Roman Army, what was/were the hasta?

spear (used by triarii and hastati)

98

In a Roman Army, what was/were the lorica?

leather breastplate

99

In a Roman Army, what was/were the cingulum?

military belt

100

In a Roman Army, what was/were the caligae?

boots

101

In a Roman Army, what was/were the sarcina?

soldier’s cloak/blanket

102

In a Roman Army, what was/were the pugio?

dagger

103

In a Roman Wedding, what was/were the tunica recta?

white wedding dress

104

In a Roman Wedding, what was/were the flammeum?

“saffron” colored veil

105

In a Roman Wedding, what was/were the sponsalia?

engagement

106

In a Roman Wedding, what was/were the dos?

dowry

107

In a Roman Wedding, what was/were the “ubi tu Gaius, ego Gaia”?

what bride says at ceremony - “where you are, my husband, I am

108

In a Roman Wedding, what would a girl do the night before wedding?

a girl would dedicate her bulla to the Lares

109

In a Roman Wedding, what was/were the pronuba?

matron of honor

110

In a Roman Wedding, what was/were the bad luck to marry on?

the kalends, nones, ides (and the day after each) of any month; all of May and half of June were all unlucky days; also unlucky, the days the lower world was supposed to open: August 24, October 5, November 8.

111

In a Roman Wedding, what was/were the usus?

common law marriage

112

In a Roman Wedding, what was/were the coemptio?

fictitious sale of the bride

113

In a Roman Wedding, what was/were the confarreatio?

upper class marriage ceremony

114

In a Roman Wedding, what was/were the deductio?

procession of wedding party to forum

115

In Roman Religion, what was/were the Pontifex Maximus?

chief priest, elected for life

116

In Roman Religion, what was/were the Vestal Virgins?

start at age 6 - (30 years) learn job for 10 years, work as Vestal for 10 years, teach for 10 years - keep flame of Vesta burning, keep documents, etc. safe; only man allowed in temple (which is round) is Pontifex Maximus

117

In Roman Religion, what was/were the auspex?

priest who checks sky for omens (birds/lightning)

118

In Roman Religion, what was/were the augur?

same as auspex

119

In Roman Religion, what was/were the haruspex?

checks guts of animals for omens (2 hearts are bad…)

120

In Roman Religion, what was/were the Salii?

priests of Mars

121

In Roman Religion, what was/were the Lares?

household gods

122

In Roman Religion, what was/were the Lararium?

shrine for Lares

123

In Roman Religion, what was/were the Penates?

gods of cupboards

124

In Roman Names, what was/were the praenomen?

first name

125

In Roman Names, what was/were the nomen?

family name

126

In Roman Names, what was/were the cognomen?

name for branch of family

127

In Roman Names, what was/were the agnomen?

earned name

128

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the subligaculum?

underwear

129

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the tunica?

worn by all (like long t-shirt)

130

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the toga praetexta?

worn by boys under 16 and magistrates (with purple stripe)

131

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the toga virilis?

all white - worn by men over 1

132

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the toga pura?

same as toga virilis

133

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the toga libera?

same as toga virilis (boys gave up their toga praetexta on the Liberalia)

134

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the toga candida?

worn by men running for office; bright white (chalk)

135

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the toga pulla?

worn by men in mourning (called sordidati)

136

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the stola?

women’s dress

137

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the palla?

women’s shawl

138

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the fibula?

broach, pin

139

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the bulla?

child’s good luck charm

140

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the calceus?

shoe (for outdoors)

141

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the solea?

sandal for indoors

142

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the petasus?

broad –brimmed hat

143

In Roman Clothing, what was/were the pileus?

cap of freedom

144

In a Roman House, what was/were the atrium?

entry hallway/large meeting room

145

In a Roman House, what was/were the compluvium?

hole in roof of atrium - allows water i

146

In a Roman House, what was/were the impluvium?

basin that catches water

147

In a Roman House, what was/were the alae?

wings off atrium

148

In a Roman House, what was/were the imagines?

bust of ancestors, housed in alae

149

In a Roman House, what was/were the tablinum?

master’s office

150

In a Roman House, what was/were the triclinium?

dining room

151

In a Roman House, what was/were the culina?

kitchen

152

In a Roman House, what was/were the cubiculum?

bedroom

153

In a Roman House, what was/were the peristylium?

outdoor garden with columns

154

In a Roman House, what was/were the hortus?

regular garden

155

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the ientaculum?

breakfast

156

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the prandium?

lunch

157

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the thermopolium?

place to buy hot, fast food

158

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the cena?

dinner

159

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the garum, liquamen?

fish sauce

160

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the secunda mensa?

dessert

161

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the gustatio, promulsis, antecena?

appetizer

162

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the mulsum?

wine mixed with honey

163

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the mulsa?

fermented honey and water

164

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the mustum?

grape juice

165

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the acetum?

vinegar

166

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the comissatio?

drinking party

167

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the rex bibendi?

master of the drinking (he decides the games, etc.)

168

In a Roman Meal, what was/were the seating?

Romans reclined on their left side; there were 3 couches, each seating 3 people.

169

In Roman Culture, what was/were the Via Appia?

Appian Way - from Rome to Capua early on, then extended to Brundisium; known as the queen of the roads - “regina viarum” - built by Appius Claudius Caecus in 312 B

170

In Roman Culture, what was/were the Via Sacra?

road which ran through the forum

171

In Roman Culture, what was/were the Mare Nostum?

“our sea” - Mediterranea

172

In Roman Culture, what was/were the Patria potestas?

power of father over familia

173

In Roman Culture, what was/were the Pater familias?

head of family

174

In Roman Culture, what was/were the basilica?

law court

175

In Roman Culture, what was/were the curia?

senate house

176

In Roman Culture, what was/were the cloaca maxima?

great sewer

177

In Roman Culture, what was/were the insulae?

apartment buildings

178

In Roman Culture, what was/were the vigiles?

firemen/police

179

In Roman Vehicles, what was/were the cisium?

lightweight, 2 wheeled vehicle

180

In Roman Vehicles, what was/were the raeda?

4 wheeled carriage, comfortable and large

181

In Roman Vehicles, what was/were the lectica?

litter (carried by 4 slaves)

182

In Roman Funerals, what was/were the praeficae?

professional mourners

183

In Roman Funerals, what was/were the neniae?

dirges

184

In Roman Funerals, what was/were the conclamatio?

oldest son shakes father 3 times and calls his name

185

In Roman Funerals, what was/were the sarcophagus?

stone coffin

186

In Roman Funerals, what was/were the columbarium?

underground chamber for urns holding the ashes of a cremated person