Digestive System Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Digestive System Review Deck (26):
1

Nutrition

Process by which the body nourishes itself by transforming food into energy and body tissues.

2

Nutrient

Substances in food that supply your body uses for growth, repair, and nutrients

3

List the 5 nutrients used by the body and several foods that each would be found.

Water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals

Water, bread, meats, oranges, tofu

4

List some of the minerals needed by the human body, where you could receive theses minerals and what they would be used for by the body.

Potassium-banana-nerve and muscle function, water balance

Calcium-milk-bone and teeth formation, blood clotting

Iron-meats-it helps to transport oxygen around the body

5

List the 3 types of teeth and what they are used for.

Molars-grind and crush into a fine paste that can be swallowed.

Cuspid and incisors-cut and tear into food

6

Mechanical digestion

The break down of food from large into small pieces.

7

Chemical digestion

Break down of food particles into smaller useable molecules.

8

Absorption

Nutrients that come from the food pass through channels in the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream.

9

List the organs of the GI (gastro intestinal tract)

Small intestine, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, big intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon

10

What is the appendix, what is its function, and where is it located?

Small finger like pouch, acts as a store house for good bacteria, located beside caecum.

11

What is the epiglottis?

A flap of cartridge at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to cover the opening of the wind pipe.

12

List the accessory organs

Pancreas, liver, gall bladder, salivary glands, appendix, teeth and tongue.

13

Define/describe enzyme

Chemicals that aid in the chemical digestion of food.

14

Lipase

Made in pancreas, secreted into small intestine, digests fats

15

Maltase

Made in small intestine, secreted into small intestine, breaks down remaining disaccharides to monosaccharides

16

Amylase

Made in salivary glands, secreted into mouth, digests starch

17

Peptidase

Made in small intestine, secreted into small intestine, digests dipeptides

18

Trypsin

Made in pancreas, secreted into small intestine, digests protein

19

Pepsin

Made in stomach, secreted into stomach, protein into smaller peptides

20

Lactase

Made in small intestine, secreted into small intestine, digests lactase?

21

Describe the role of insulin in the body

Insulin regulates how the body uses and stores glucose and fat

22

List the symptoms, causes and treatments for diabetes

Symptoms-frequent urination, intense thirst, and hunger

Causes-absence or insufficient production of insulin, or your body not knowing properly on how to use diabetes.

Treatments-controlling blood sugar (glucose) level is the major goal of diabetes treatment

23

Gallstones

Causes-when there’s an imbalance in the substances that make up the bile

Symptoms-intense pain in upper right abdomen, nausea, vomiting

Treatments-surgery to remove the gall bladder, medication to dissolve gull bladder



24

Celiac

Cause-not sure, they think it goes from generation to generation

Symptoms-slowed growth, weight loss, irritability

Treatments-eat foods that don’t contain gluten

25

What are essential amino acids?

Histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine tryptophan and valine

26

What is a calorie?

Units of energy