Ecosystems Flashcards Preview

science > Ecosystems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ecosystems Deck (48):
1

Producers or autotrophs

organism at the base of the food chain that does not need to feed on other organisms; also known as an autotroph

2

Photosynthesis

the food-making process in plants that takes place in chloroplasts within cells. The process uses carbon dioxide, water and energy from the sun.

3

Organism

Living thing

4

Population

group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at a particular time

5

Habitat

Refers to place where an organism lives

6

Community

more than one population living in the same area at a particular time

7

Environment

The set of loving and non living doctors in an area

8

Ecosystems

communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment

9

Ecology

The study of ecosystems

10

Decomposes

organisms that break down organic matter into inorganic materials. They are microorganism such as bacteria and fungi which secrete acid compounds to break down dead matter and absorb nutrients from. It

11

Consumers or heterotrophs

organism that relies on other organisms for its food; also known as a heterotroph. They can be classified as herbivores, carnivores or omnivores.

12

Consumer names

First order consumers are known as herbivores as the feed directly from producers. Second order consumers eat herbivores but can also eat the producer. Third order consumer eat lower order consumer

13

Detrivores

Organisms that eat waste from other animals to get energy. Eg earthworms

14

Ecological niche

the position of a species or population in its ecosystem in relation to each other

15

Competition

the struggle among organisms for food, territory and other factors

16

Parasitism

interaction in which one species (the parasite) lives in or on another species (the host) from which it obtains food, shelter and other requirements. Eg. Head lice

17

Mutualism

relationship between two different organisms in which both benefit eg pollination

18

Commensalism

relationship between organisms where one benefits and the other is unaffected eg. Clownfish and anemones which protect clownfish but are unaffected.

19

Interpecicfic competition

competition between organisms of the same species

20

Intraecific competition

competition between organisms of different species

21

Per editor prey relationship

relationship between organisms in which one species (the predator) kills and eats another species (the prey)

22

Symbiotic relationship

very close relationship between two organisms of different species. It may benefit or harm one of the partners.

23

Metabolism

the chemical reactions occurring within an organism that enable the organism to use energy and grow and repair cells

24

Cellular respiration

the chemical reaction involving oxygen that moves the energy in glucose into the compound ATP. The body is able to use the energy contained in ATP.

27

Glycolosysis

process by which glucose is converted into a simple form, during which energy is released

28

Krebs cycle

part of the aerobic respiration process in which carbon dioxide and ATP (energy) are produced

29

Electron transport chain reactions

part of the aerobic respiration process

30

Mitochondria

small rod-shaped organelles that supply energy to other parts of the cell. They are usually too small to be seen with light microscopes. Singular = mitochondrion.

31

Anaerobic respiration

the chemical breakdown of food without oxygen. The reaction needs enzymes, occurs in cells and releases less energy than aerobic respiration.

32

Lactic acid

an end product of anaerobic respiration in animals; also known as lactate

33

Biome

Contains multiple ecosystems and is characterised by particular organisms and weather patterns. Eg: the ocean and desert

34

Biosphere

Contains all biomes and is the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the arts

35

Terrestrial and marine biome

Terrestrial-environments on land
Marine_environments on water

36

Chemosythentic

describes organisms that produce organic material using energy released from chemical reactions rather than light

37

Energy pyramid

representation of the level of food energy at each level within a food chain

38

Hybrid

Hybrids can be produced when two members of direct species mate to create and infertile offspring.

39

Species

A group of organisms that can breed to produce fertile offspring.

40

Biotic factors

Are living organism and their effects on the environment eg. A hungry dingo interacting with rabbits and rats by eating them.

41

Abiotic factors

Non living part on ecosystem which effects the life of organisms around it. Eg. Water which is not alive built is needed for life to thrive.

42

Examples of biotic and abiotic

Abiotic. Biotic

Sunlight Plants
Soil Animals
Rain Fungi
Wind Bacteria
Temperature Organism interactions
Humidity Competition
Gases

43

Why are abiotic factors necessary for life to thrive

Heat is very important as the key processes of life depend on temperature
Water is extremely important as it provides organisms with hydration and aids in biochemical reactions
Soil is need for plants to grow
Light is necessary for creating energy through photosynthesis
Fire helps to control plants growth and germination

44

Germination

The process of a seed growing into a new plant

45

Chloroplasts

Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which is a green pigment found in plant cells that captures light energy during photosynthesis. The synthesis of glucose also occurs in here.

46

Food chain

diagram that shows how the energy stored in one organism is passed to another

47

Food webs

diagram showing several food chains joined together to demonstrate that animals eat more than one type of food. It is a collection of all food chains in an ecosystem.

48

Tropic levels

An organisms position in a food chain. It is an organisms feeding level. Only 10% of energy is transferred from one level to the other with the rest lost as heat or waste to the environment. This is why food pyramid don't usually have more than four levels.

49

Aerobic respiration

the chemical breakdown of food using oxygen. The reaction needs enzymes, occurs in all body cells and releases energy.

50

Apex predators

Predators at the top of the food chain