Endocrine Disruptors Flashcards Preview

FHB Block 4 > Endocrine Disruptors > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Disruptors Deck (19):

What are the non-classical endocrine glands, and what hormones do they release?

Brain - especially the hypothalamus

Kidney: renin, vit D, EPO

Heart: ANP and BNP

Liver: IGF-1

GI - small intestine, stomach: serotonin, ghrelin


What is renin and where is it produced?

glycoprotein produced in the juxtaglomerular apparatus of afferent arterioles


What does renin do?

regulator of arteriolar diameter

cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I


What does EPO do?

stimulates proerythroblasts and differentiation of RBCs (increases cell number)


What is EPO regulated by?

anemia, thyroid hormone, hypoxia (high altitude), norepinephrine

androgens stimulate, estrogens inhibit


What is a major side effect of raising hematocrit too quickly?

hypertension, which can lead to encephaly, seizures


What are some other effects of doping?

red cell aplasia - likely due to the injections, and not EPO itself

transgenic overexpression of EPO: Mice had demyelinating neuropathy, muscle degeneration, degenerative liver/kidney disease, shorter life span. No cardiovascular issues.


What are the effects of ANP and BNP?

decrease vascular smooth muscle tone

decrease peripheral vascular resistance

increase capillary permeability


What is the definition of an endocrine disruptor?

chemicals that may interfere with the body’s endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in both humans and wildlife


What are PCBs?

Polychlorinated biphenyl


What do PCBs do?

compete with thyroid binding to its transport proteins in blood (TRR, TBG)


What are the effects of PCB?

increased breakdown of TH with a compensatory increase in production by the thyroid gland

goiter, can cause cancer, suppress immune function, reduce sperm count, and result in neurological deficits


What is Diethylstilbestrol (DES)?

non-steroidal synthetic estrogen used in cattle feed

given to women from 1940-1970 to reduce complications

used as a prostate cancer treatment


What was the result of DES toxicity?

“DES daughters” = 40% increase in cervical/vaginal cancers


What are some endocrine compounds found in water?

Pesticides (Atrazine)
Estrogens given to livestock
Industrial chemicals (bisphenol-A)


are birth controls found in water?

Synthetic estrogen (EE2) is minimal or nonexistent in drinking water


What is BPA used for?

food packaging, toys, lining of canned foods and beverages


What are the physiological consequences of BPA?

estrogenic, obesogenic, neurological effects, antagonist for thyroid hormone receptor, reproductive and developmental effects (men and women), cardiovascular disease - evidence for arrhythmias and atherosclerosis


What is an issue with BPA branding?

BPA substitutes – BPS and BPF

As of July 2015 there were 32 studies. Most found that they had similar endocrine actions as BPA

Recent study showed BPS is risk factor for developing T2DM.

Consumers can buy products that are labelled “BPA-free” and these products likely contain BPS or BPF.