Flashcards in Endocrine Disruptors Deck (19):
What are the non-classical endocrine glands, and what hormones do they release?
Brain - especially the hypothalamus
Kidney: renin, vit D, EPO
Heart: ANP and BNP
GI - small intestine, stomach: serotonin, ghrelin
What is renin and where is it produced?
glycoprotein produced in the juxtaglomerular apparatus of afferent arterioles
What does renin do?
regulator of arteriolar diameter
cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
What does EPO do?
stimulates proerythroblasts and differentiation of RBCs (increases cell number)
What is EPO regulated by?
anemia, thyroid hormone, hypoxia (high altitude), norepinephrine
androgens stimulate, estrogens inhibit
What is a major side effect of raising hematocrit too quickly?
hypertension, which can lead to encephaly, seizures
What are some other effects of doping?
red cell aplasia - likely due to the injections, and not EPO itself
transgenic overexpression of EPO: Mice had demyelinating neuropathy, muscle degeneration, degenerative liver/kidney disease, shorter life span. No cardiovascular issues.
What are the effects of ANP and BNP?
decrease vascular smooth muscle tone
decrease peripheral vascular resistance
increase capillary permeability
What is the definition of an endocrine disruptor?
chemicals that may interfere with the body’s endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in both humans and wildlife
What are PCBs?
What do PCBs do?
compete with thyroid binding to its transport proteins in blood (TRR, TBG)
What are the effects of PCB?
increased breakdown of TH with a compensatory increase in production by the thyroid gland
goiter, can cause cancer, suppress immune function, reduce sperm count, and result in neurological deficits
What is Diethylstilbestrol (DES)?
non-steroidal synthetic estrogen used in cattle feed
given to women from 1940-1970 to reduce complications
used as a prostate cancer treatment
What was the result of DES toxicity?
“DES daughters” = 40% increase in cervical/vaginal cancers
What are some endocrine compounds found in water?
Estrogens given to livestock
Industrial chemicals (bisphenol-A)
are birth controls found in water?
Synthetic estrogen (EE2) is minimal or nonexistent in drinking water
What is BPA used for?
food packaging, toys, lining of canned foods and beverages
What are the physiological consequences of BPA?
estrogenic, obesogenic, neurological effects, antagonist for thyroid hormone receptor, reproductive and developmental effects (men and women), cardiovascular disease - evidence for arrhythmias and atherosclerosis