Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (15):
Which type of diabetes are prone to DKA?
How does DKA typically present?
Ketone smell on breath
Polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration
Kussmaul respiration (deep hyperventilation)
What is Kussmaul respiration and when is it seen?
Seen in DKA
What are the diagnostic features of DKA?
Acidosis (ph <7.3 and bicarb <15)
Ketosis (>3 or urinary ketones ++)
What are the key management features for DKA?
IV saline fluid regime
IV insulin infusion started at 0.1unit/kg/hour, then 5% dextrose once glucose <15
Potassium replacement (not in first saline bolus as K+ given too quickly can lead to arrhythmias)
What are the diagnostic features of HHS?
(No acidosis or ketosis)
What are some clinical features of primary hyperparathyroidism?
(High calcium symptoms, bones moans groans and stones)
Bone pain/ #
What is the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism?
Removal of all 4 parathyroid glands
Which diabetes medication is useful in T2DM patients that are obese?
DDP-4 inhibitors (gliptins)
Which type of medication is exenatide?
How do gliptins work?
So less GLP-1 is broken down
So, increased insulin secreted from beta cells, reduced glucagon secreted from alpha cells, acts on the brain for increased satiety, slows down gastric emptying, increase glucose uptake by muscles, reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis
Which T2DM drug results in weight loss?
GLP-1 agonists e.g. exenatide
Which receptor does piaglitazone agonise?
What are some side effects of Piaglitazone?
Increased # risk