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Flashcards in Energy Deck (62):
1

How do you assess nutritional statue in children

Growth charts

2

How do you assess bnutritional status in adults

BMI test
skin-fold test
waist/hip ration
bioimpedence

3

Nutritional requirements in infants

proteins and micronutrients

4

nutritional requirements in children and adolescents

energy, protein and micronutrients

5

nutritional requirements in adults and eldery

less energy but still proteins and micronutrients for maintenance

6

nutritional requirements in pregnant

same energy but increased proteins and micronutrients to support foetus

7

What is the calorie definition

Heat required to heat 1g of H2O from 15 to 16 degrees

8

Number of joules in calories

4.184 J

9

What is the definition of the Joule

Energy expended to move 1kg by 1m with 1N

10

How many calories in a joule

0.24 Cal

11

The physiological energy value of Carbohydrates

17 KJ/g

12

Physiological energy value of Proteins

17KJ/g

13

Physiological energy value of Fats

37KJ/g

14

Physiological energy value of Alcohol

29KJ/g

15

How much of your energy should come from carbohydrate

45-65%

16

How much of your energy should come from Protein

15-20%

17

How much of your energy should come from fats

25-30%

18

What are two ways to measure energy expenditure

Direct Calorimetry
Indirect calorimetry

19

What does direct calorimetry involve

Measureing heat generated

20

What does indirect calorimetry involve

Measures O2 consumed

21

What is the respiratory quotient

Produced CO2/Consumed O2

Moles CO2/Moles O2
Vol CO2/Vol O2

22

What is the respiratory quotient for glucose

6/6 = 1

23

What is the respiratory quotient for lipids

16/23 = 0.7

24

What is the RQ for a balanced diet? What is the energy expenditure of that?

0.82
20.2 KJ/L

25

What is the formula for energy expenditure (KJ)

Vol O2 (l) x 20.2 (KJ/l)

26

What is the average total energy expenditure (TEE) per day

10000 KJ/day

27

What is the physical activity level expressed as

A multiple of BMR

28

What is the PAL for minimal activity

1.4

29

What is the PAL for exercise

7

30

What are the two teypes of substrate level phosphorylation

Phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP

Creatine Phosphate + ADP
Enzyme is Creatine Kinase (CKMB/CKMM/CKBB)

31

Why is more energy produced from lipids

because they are more reduced

32

What do the TCA intermediates allow for

Symthesis of:

Glucose
Fatty acid
Amino acid
Neurotransmitters
Heme

33

What can oxaloacetate be used for?

gluconeogenesis
Aspartate

34

What can citrate be used for

lipid synthesis

35

What can alpha-ketoglutarate be used for

glutamate
neurotransmitters

36

What can succinyl-coA be used for

Amino acids
Haem

37

What are the products of the TCA Cycle

FADH2
3x NADH
GTP

38

What does the TCA Cycle need to function

Oxaloacetate
NAD+

39

What activates the TCA Cycle

ADP

40

What inhibits the TCA Cycle

NADH

41

What are two molecules that are toxic to the TCA Cycle?

DNP (Dinitrophenol)
Cyanide

42

What can complex I of ETC be called

NADH-Q Reductase

43

What can complex II of ETC be called

Succinate Dehydrogenase

44

What can Complex III of ETC be called

QH2-Cytochrome C Reductase

45

What can complex IV of ETC be called

Cytochrome C Oxidase

46

What can complex V of ETC be called

F0F1 ATP Synthase

47

What is Ubiquinone reduced to

QH2

48

What happens to Cytochrome C when it is reduced

Makes Fe2+ from Fe3+

49

What happens in the F0 part of ATP synthase

Protons move through here

50

What happens in the F1 part of ATP synthase

Generation

51

What is the P:O ratio

ATP Synthesised/O2 consumed

52

How many ATP per NADH

3

53

How many ATP per FADH2

2

54

What is it called when the P:O ratio stays constant

Tight coupling

55

What causes TCA Cycle to be stimulated in uncoupling

High levels of ADP

56

What type of tissue keeps neonatals warm using uncoupling

Brown adipose tissue

57

Which hormone increases uncoupling proteins

Thyroid hormones

58

What is a chemical uncoupler

DNP (dinitrophenol)

59

What blocks complex I

Rotenone
Certain Barbitureates

60

what causes it lactate acidosis

Decreased TCA cycle activity leading to pyruvate

61

What binds to Haem of Complex IV, preventing binding of O2

cyanide
CO

62

What is Histotoxic hypoxia

When cells cannot use O2 because they are toxic