Enquiry 2 Why Do Some Tectonic Hazards Develop Into Disasters Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Enquiry 2 Why Do Some Tectonic Hazards Develop Into Disasters Deck (29):
1

Disaster

When hazard affects human well-being

Dregs disaster model suggests a disaster only happens when a hazardous event meets a vulnerable population

2

Vulnerability

How susceptible a population is to damage caused by a hazard

Capacity to cope/ resilience is how well a population can recover from a disaster

3

Risk

Likelihood of humans being affected by a hazard

Risk= hazard x vulnerability/ capacity to cope

Qatar has lowest disaster risk 0.1%

Philippines has highest 27.5% out of 170 countries

4

Impacts of disaster

Vary according to level of development

Turkey and Kashmir has similar sized earthquakes 1999 and 2015

Kashmir 75000 deaths

Turkey 18000

Kashmir mountainous with poor access to service/infrastructure

Richer= high financial loss
Poorer= severe shocks to community wellbeing & diseases

5

Relationship between risk/hazards/people

Unpredictability- timing/ magnitude caught out

Russian roulette response- acceptance (fatalistic)

CBA- benefits of hazard outweigh risks

Dynamic hazards- human influence can increase frequency/ magnitude

Lack of alternatives

6

Resilience

Degree to which community has necessary resources and is capable or organising itself prior to and during time of event

7

Pressure and release model

Proposed what should be tackled if the risk of a disaster is to be reduced

ROOT CAUSES ideologies and political systems

DYNAMIC PRESSURES macro-forces (deforestation/ rapid urbanisation)

UNSAFE CONDITIONS vulnerable society

NATURAL HAZARD volcano erupt

Vulnerability can be physical/economic/social

8

Haiti (VULNERABILITY)

12th jan 2010

Richter 7

Killed 200,000

70% live less than $2 day

86% in Port au Prince love steep slope slums

Unstable gov

1.5m homeless

Cholera epidemic 6900 deaths

2015 still recovering

Lack of coordination meant aid ships were turned away

Gov strengthen for 2013 hurricane

9

Hazard events in developing and developed

DEVELOPED (infrequent disasters/ low vulnerability)

Low birth rate
Large cities
Independence

DEGRADING ENVIRO

DEVELOPING (frequent disasters/ high vulnerability)

High birth rate
Dependence
Megacities

10

Earthquakes and tsunamis in contrasting locations 2004-2013

Very high human development

Affected 4,010,000

Killed 21,036

Low human development

Affected 9,495,000

Killed 29,7328

11

Hazard profiles

Magnitude

Speed of onset

Duration

Frequency

Spatial probability

12

Hazard profile challenges

difficult to compare across hazards

Each treated as unique and own mitigation technique

Hazard planning strategy- cost conflicts/ gov unwilling to pay

Highest risk

High mag and low frequency
Least expected

Rapid onset and low spatial prob without warning

13

VEI

volcanic explosivity

Calculated from:

Height of eruption cloud

Ejecta of eruption (volume of products)

logarithmic

14

Richter scale

Measure amplitude of waves produced by earthquake

0-9

Absolute scale

15

Mercalli scale

Measures experienced impacts of earthquake

Relative scale (different amount of shaking)

I-xii

16

MMS

Moment magnitude scale

Based on seismic moment

0-9

Used by seismologists in terms of energy released

USGs used to measure magnitude of large earthquakes

17

Development

Inequalities in access to:

Health/ unemployment/ services

squatter settlements (unsafe conditions)

No secure tenure affects ability to rebuild

Damage- set back development (destroy Haiti factory- 50% of exports)

18

Governance

How well coordinate:

NGOs
Administer/enforce standards
Services
Transport
Key emergency agencies (energy/water)

Weak/corrupt

Political organisations

ECONOMIC relationship with other economies
POLITICAL create policies (national disaster reduction)
ADMINISTRATIVE policy implementation (building codes)

19

JAPAN (developed)

ROOT CAUSES ageing pop and nuclear power

DYNAMIC PRESSURE elderly less mobile and lack safety procedures in power plant

UNSAFE CONDITIONS tsunami wall not high enough and power plant cooling fault

HAZARD 10m tsunami and radiation and magnitude 9 earthquake

20

CHINA (emerging)

ROOT CAUSES corrupt gov officials (especially local/rural)

DYNAMIC PRESSURE often ignored building codes

UNSAFE CONDITIONS buildings

HAZARD landslides and magnitude 7.9 earthquake

5335 kids dead
45m affected

21

developed and why deaths are rare

Advanced/widespread insurance

Land use zoning

Sophisticated monitoring of volcanoes

22

Geographical factor affect vulnerability

Isolation/ accessibility- slow relief and rescue

Pop density- high so hard to evacuate (mt Vesuvius)

Degree of urbanisation- concentration of at risk people

23

Global assessment report on disaster risk reduction

Urban segregation

Low income households

Forced to occupy hazard exposed area

High environmental degradation

Low resilience (little ‘voice’ in politics)

Socially excluded

24

Development and cross cutting factors

Drought

Violence

Armed conflict

Make a hazard a disaster

Diseases (HIV)

25

Threshold

Magnitude above which disaster occurs

Distaste occurs at the intersection of people and hazards (DEGGS) has

10 or more deaths

100 or more people affected

Us$1 million in economic losses

26

PAR model applied to Haiti

Root cause- 50% pop is under 20
GDP per capita us$1200

Dynamic pressure- 70% jobs are in informal sector
Port-au-Prince has no sewer system

Unsafe condition-25% people in extreme poverty
80% port au princes housing is unplanned slums

27

earthquake in developing vs emerging

2008 Sichuan earthquake
Mag 8

69,000 deaths
5 million homeless
Us$140b in economic losses
1/3 deaths due to landslide

2015 Nepal
Mag 7.9

9000 deaths
22,000 injured
Us$5b in economic losses
Killer avalanches triggered in Mount Everest

28

Hazard Profile of Kashmir earthquake 2005

Mag 7.6
Ground shaking intensity vii

Speed of onset v rapid (no chance of evacuating)

Damage centred on muzaffarabad but spread over an areal extent of more than 1000km2

Aftershocks mag 6.4

29

Hdi and no of deaths in mag 7 earthquakes

2015 Nepal
0.55 on hdi
9018 deaths

2007 chile
0.83 on hdi
2 deaths