Environmental Influences on Human Development (Part II) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Environmental Influences on Human Development (Part II) Deck (71):
1

Have a direct positive affect on nervous system development

Omega-3 fatty acids

2

Fish that is low in mercury and high in omega 3's

Salmon

3

Which has more mercury, solid white or chunk light tuna?

Solid white (by 4x)

4

Cognitive defects in children are the main points of concern when dealing with

Mercury poisoning

5

Leads to upregulation of calcium transporters in the intestine, thereby facilitating the uptake of other divalent cations such as cadmium or lead

Calcium deficiency

6

Interferes with the development of the nervous system both before and after birth

Methylmercury

7

The effects of methylmercury are mediated by impacts at the molecular level, including microtubulin synthesis and attachment in the

Central nervous system

8

Accumulate in fish, and people who consume large quantities of fish on a daily basis, also expose their infants to developmental delay and lowered cognitive
performance

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

9

In the case of PCB's, the major impact occurs from

Prenatal exposure

10

Led to a 9-13% decrease in gestation duration

-Indirectly lead to intrauterine growth retardation

PCBs

11

Until the 1960's it was assumed that the placenta guarded against

Toxic substances

12

Associated with reduced intelligence, poorer school performance, and higher delinquency

Elevated lead levels

13

Early exposure to lead has a similar effect to early exposure to

Mercury

14

The most severe result of lead poisoning on a fetus is

Encephalopathy (leads to death)

15

Due to lead laws that took lead out of paint and out of gasoline, lead levels in the U.S. population have dramatically

Decreased

16

Who is still at risk for led poisoning?

Children from low SES neighborhoods

17

Dust and chips from old indoor lead paint, lead plumbing, and lead from parents work clothing are risk factors for

Children lead exposure

18

If you are living in a house built before 1978, you may have

Lead paint

19

about how many lead poisoning cases are seen in NJ preschools each year?

1000 cases per year

20

Are at risk for lead poisoning because they touch a lot of things and then stick their hands in their mouths

Children

21

Public health action should be prompted for children who's blood lead levels are

Above 5 ug/dl

22

Lead exposure below 5 ug/dl has still been associated with lower

Cognitive development

23

What is the mean IQ?

100 +/- 15

24

A major risk fator for ADHD in the US

Blood lead levels (BLLs) above 2 ug/dL

25

The mean IQ for math and reading scores drop significantly with BLL of

Greater than 3.0 ug/dL

26

A "sink" for lead and other household contaminants including allergens

Carpets

27

Exterior paint has the highest levels of

Lead

28

Because of their hand to mouth behavior, children less than 2 years old are at the greatest risk for

Lead poisoning

29

In an inner city study, cleaning significantly reduced blood lead in children, but only for those in

Uncarpeted homes

30

Pass through the placenta and blood brain barrier

Pesticides

31

Inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) allowing acetylcholine to build up at neuronal junctions

-ex: nerve gas Sarin

Organophosphate pesticides

32

Disrupts cell replication, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and axogenesis

AChE inhibition

33

Fetuses and young children are more susceptible to

Pesticides

34

Why are pesticides more dangerous to fetuses and young children?

1.) Rapid brain development
2.) Lower levels of detoxifying enzymes

35

Several groups of pesticides, most notably the organophosphates, operate by inhibiting the critical enzyme

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

36

Although the acute toxicity of the organophosphates is unquestioned, controversy has surrounded the issue of

Chronic low level exposure

37

Daily exposure to pesticides in human populations is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a

Lifetime

38

Concluded that the body of evidence on low-level pesticide exposure does not warrant revision of risk assessment

USEPA

39

Although not all neurobehavioral functions are
effected, some show the dramatic effects of pesticide exposure on maturation of

Cognitive function

40

Early pesticide exposure has also been linked to

-stronger association in boys than in girls

ADHD

41

Do not persist in human tissue, i.e. they have a short half-life

Organophosphate pesticides (OPs)

42

What is the metric for organophosphate pesticide exposure?

Organophosphate dialkylphosphate (DAP) in urine or parental blood

43

The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health: New York City Birth Cohort study on OPs showed that umbilical cord concentration of OPs was associated with

Birth weight and length discrepancies between highest and lowest exposure groups

44

The CHAMACOS and Mt. Sinai birth cohorts showed that DAPs in maternal urine were associated with

abnormal reflexes in neonates

45

The CHAMACOS and Mt. Sinai birth cohorts showed that DAPs in maternal urine resulted in decreased

Bayley mental development scores at 24 months

46

DAPS in 24 month old children from CHAMACOS positively associated with

Mental development

47

Columbia cohort in NYC showed a negative association between chlorpyrifos in cord plasma and motor and metal development evident at

36 months (not 12 or 24)

48

Maternal reports of pervasive developmental disorder associated with maternal DAPs in CHAMACOS and Columbia cohorts at

24 and 36 months

49

There is an increasing vocabulary and sentence complexity by

Age 3

50

Have an increased attention span and can solve simple puzzles

Three year olds

51

The memory capacity by age 5 is

Four numbers in a row

52

The memory capacity by age 10 is

Six numbers in a row

53

Tests memory in children

-"Tell me as many objects as you can remember"

McCarthy Test

54

Even a small decrease in the average IQ can have a drastic effect because it shifts more people into the qualification of

Mildly retarded

55

There is a stronger association between prenatal OP exposure and ADHD for

Boys and 5 year olds (vs 3.5 year olds)

56

The impaired development due to prenatal OP exposure becomes more apparent with

Age

57

Showed that parental reports of ADHD were associated with higher urinary OP metabolite levels in children

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

58

The Colombia cohort (residential exposure) follow up at 7 years showed that for each standard increase in chlorpyrifos exposure, what happened?

1.) IQ declined by 1.4%
2.) Working memory declined by 2.8%

59

The CHAMACOS cohort (agricultural exposure) follow up at 7 years showed that average maternal DAP concentrations were associated with poorer scores for working memory, processing speed, verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and

Full scale IQ

60

In the CHAMACOS cohort (agricultural study) the average IQ deficit was

7 points

61

An enzyme in metabolism of OP pesticides

PON1

62

The Mt. Sinai cohort (residential exposure) showed that in 6-9 year old children of mothers with the PON1
192QQ genotype, increasing maternal urinary DAP
exposure was associated with

Decline in overall IQ and perceptual reasoning

63

Reviewed experimental toxicology and epidemiology studies to determine risk assessment of OPs in 2012

FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel

64

The FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel determined that the primary mode of action or adverse outcome pathway for OPs was

AChE inhibiton

65

Using AChE inhibition as biomarker of effect is thought to be protective of downstream

Cholinergic effects

66

Said that for OPs, data are not sufficient to establish causal pathways leading to adverse outcomes on the developing brain

FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel

67

Human windows of susceptibility for prenatal exposure of OPs is

Not yet determined

68

The Columbia, Mt. Sinai, and CHAMCOS birth cohorts are almost exclusively from minority and poor cohorts because they represent the

Highest risk for OP exposure

69

New drugs undergo FDA scrutiny through the multistage drug development

Process

70

Considered innocent until proven guilty/harmful

Industrial chemicals

71

Should be demonstrably safer than waiting until they are proven devastating

New Chemicals

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