EQ3 water insecurity ; consequences and risks Flashcards Preview

PHYSICAL GEOG; WATER CYCLE AND WATER INSECURITY > EQ3 water insecurity ; consequences and risks > Flashcards

Flashcards in EQ3 water insecurity ; consequences and risks Deck (9)
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1

What is the threshold below which water shortages are said to exist?

- levels between 1,700 and 1000 m^3 per year is considered a sufficient supply , anything below 1000 would mean that a country faces “water scarcity”

2

What are the FOUR of the parameters involved in assessing the water poverty index?

- water resources
- access
- handling capacity
- use
- environmental indicators

3

What is the WPI?

- index developed in 2002 as a means of monitoring progress and prioritising water needs in response to UN millennium development goals that address poverty and water access.

4

Price of water ;
give an example of privatisation of water infrastructure through enforcement of IMF ?

late 1900's Aguas De tuner took over C's was infrastructure ; privatisation led to the doubling of water price - costed C's urban poor 20% of their avg income

5

Do wealthy countries also experience variation in water prices?

yes - Ireland began charging for water supplies in 2012 and water bills in 2016 water bills were 75% less than in the UK

6

Aral Sea case study;
When and why did it start shrinking ?

1990's due to large scale irrigation schemes carried out by the soviet govt , which required the diversion of rivers Amu Darya and Sir darya - occurred for decades.
- built 45 dams and 80 reservoirs along the river routes - to irrigate cotton and wheat fields in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan
- attempts to mitigate against shrinkage were made by decreasing salt volumes in soil and desalination projects - all inefficient attempts that worsened deterioration of the Aral Sea.

7

Aral Sea case study;
What were the consequences of the irrigation schemes?

- 10 % shrinkage from its original size.
- 40% shrinkage in area
- evaporation increased salinity
- coastlines receded miles from local towns
- climate change worsens continuous withdrawals in river discharge as there is a decrease in runoff from the Pamir Mountains.

8

potential for conflict :
How much of Ethiopia's agriculture does the Nile account for?

80 % of agricultural exports in trade.

9

Define water stress

when a country's water is consumption and supply is extreme , leading to an imbalance in demand and supply, creating a economic or physical deficit in fresh water availability, creating stress on all living organisms and economic systems

country has less than 1700m^3 of water available per person per yr.