Flashcards in Exam #1: Gross Brain & Blood Supply Deck (65):
Review horizontal/ transverse, coronal, & sagittal/ parasagittal planes on MRI/CT.
What is the difference between dorsal & ventral in the brain?
Dorsal= superior in reference to the brain & toward the back in reference to the spine
Ventral= inferior in reference to the brain & toward the front in reference to the spine
What is the difference between rostral & caudal?
Rostral= toward the beak/ front
Caudal= toward the tail/ back
Where does the cephalic flexure occur?
This is the "first flexure," or bend, of the embryonic brain; it appears in the region of the mid-brain.
What is the difference between a gyrus & a sulcus?
Sulcus= shallow depression
What is a deep depression in the brain called?
What is the function of the gyri & sulci?
Increased SA i.e. increase SA/V ratio
Where is the longitudinal fissure?
Fissure between left & right hemispheres
*Note that the floor is the corpus callosum
Where is the lateral fissure?
Fissure that separates the frontal/ parietal lobes from the temporal
Where is the transverse fissure?
Between cerebellum & cerebral cortex
What are the major functions of the frontal lobe?
- Learned behavior
- Primary motor cortex
- Contains "Broca's area" for speech & language
What is the broad function of the parietal lobe?
Note that this is also called the "somatosensory cortex"
- Takes sensory info in & makes it conscious experience
- Integration of auditory, visual & somatosensory info
What is the broad function of the temproal lobe?
Contains "Wernicke's" area that functions in
- Understanding & speaking written word
- Contains the primary auditory cortex
Where is the limbic system?
Medial aspect of the temporal lobe
What is the broad function of the occipital lobe?
Primary visual cortex & other functions associated with vision
What is the central sulcus?
Demarcation between the frontal & parietal lobes
What is the lateal sulcus?
This is the demarcation between the frontal & parietal lobes from the temporal lobe
What gyrus sits infront of the central sulcus?
What gyrus sits behind the central sulcus?
What is the parieto-occipital sulcus? Where is this sulcus visualized?
Demarcation between occipital and parietal lobes, which is viewed from the MEDIAL aspect
What is the calcarine sulcus?
Sulcus in the occipital lobe itself, viewed MEDIALLY ina mid-sagittal cut
*****Note that the primary visual cortex surrounds the boundaries of this sulcus
Where is the insula? How do you find it?
Deep to the lateral fissure apart you'll find the insular lobe
What is the broad function of the insula?
What is the corpus callosum?
Connection between the right and left cerebral hemispheres
Where is the cingulate gyrus?
Superior to the corpus callosum
What are the parts of the limbic system?
What are the basal nuclei/ganglia of the brain?
Collections of nerve cell bodies imbedded within the cortex
What are the parts of the basal nuclei/ ganglia?
*****Subthalamus that is also part of the diencephalon
What is the general function of the basal nuclei?
What is the diencephalon? What are the parts of the Diencephalon?
Collection of nuclei in the central position of the brain consisting of:
What is the function of the thalamus?
Relaying sensory information
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
Connection between the brain & endocrine system
What is the function of the epithalamus?
The epithalamus contains the pineal body & functions in circadian rhythms
Where are the hippocampus & amygdala?
Deep into the temporal lobe; amygdala is anterior to the hippocamus
What is the function of the hippocampus?
What does damage to the mammillary bodies present as?
What is the function of the amygdala?
Memory processing and emotional reactions
What separates the two hemispheres of the cerebellum?
What is the broad function of the cerebellum?
Refined motor function
What are the three parts of the brainstem?
What is the landmark for the midbrain?
What is the Corpora Quadragemini? What is the function of the Corpora Quadragemini?
Four nuclei of the midbrain
- 2x superior= vision
- 2x inferior= auditory
What provides the anterior circulation of the brain?
Internal carotid arteries
What provides the posterior circulation of the brain?
Where do the carotid arteries bifurcate into the internal & external carotid arteries?
Level of the thyroid cartilage
Where do the vertebral arteries enter the skull?
What artery do the vertebral arteries join to form?
What are the branches of the internal carotid arteries?
What connects that Anterior Cerebral arteries?
What connects that Middle Cerebral arteries?
What lobe of the brain does the anterior cerebral NOT supply?
What are the two divisions of the middle cerebral artery?
Superior & inferior divisions
- Superior= frontal & parietal lobe
- Inferior= temporal lobe
******Middle cerebral supplies the insula itself
What are watershed territories? Why are the watershed territories clinically important?
The arteries the form the anterior circulation of the brain don't completely connect on the superior medial aspects of the brain; rather, each major artery (anterior & middle) sends small capillaries that anastomose
*****Prone to ischemic stroke
What are the branches of the vertebral arteries?
Posterior spinal artery
Anterior spinal artery
Posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA)
What are the branches of the basilar artery?
Anterior inferior cerebellar (AICA)
Superior cerebellar artery
Where does the anterior spinal artery run?
Anterior median fissure of the medulla
Where does the PICA branch from?
Basilar artery, distal/ lateral to the posterior spinal artery
What lobe does the posterior cerebral artery supply?
Inferior occipital lobe
Inferior temporal lobe
What is the calcarine branch of the posterior cerebral artery? What does it supply?
Branch of the posterior cerebral artery that supplies the visual cortex surrounding the Calcarine Sulcus.c
Where is the Cerebral Vein of Galen?
"Main Brain Drain Vein"
Where are the Basal veins of Rosenthal?
Help drain venous blood from the braimstem & enter the Great Cerebral Vein of Galen into the jugular system
What is the vein of Trolard?
Drains blood from the superior surface of the brain into the sagittal sinus
What is the Vein of Labbe?
Drains blood from the inferior surface of the of the brain
What are the bridging veins?
Veins that connect the vein of Trolard & Labbe