Exam #1: Gross Brain & Blood Supply Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #1: Gross Brain & Blood Supply Deck (65):
1

Review horizontal/ transverse, coronal, & sagittal/ parasagittal planes on MRI/CT.

N/A

2

What is the difference between dorsal & ventral in the brain?

Dorsal= superior in reference to the brain & toward the back in reference to the spine

Ventral= inferior in reference to the brain & toward the front in reference to the spine

3

What is the difference between rostral & caudal?

Rostral= toward the beak/ front
Caudal= toward the tail/ back

4

Where does the cephalic flexure occur?

This is the "first flexure," or bend, of the embryonic brain; it appears in the region of the mid-brain.

5

What is the difference between a gyrus & a sulcus?

Gyrus= elevation
Sulcus= shallow depression

6

What is a deep depression in the brain called?

Fissure

7

What is the function of the gyri & sulci?

Increased SA i.e. increase SA/V ratio

8

Where is the longitudinal fissure?

Fissure between left & right hemispheres

*Note that the floor is the corpus callosum

9

Where is the lateral fissure?

Fissure that separates the frontal/ parietal lobes from the temporal

10

Where is the transverse fissure?

Between cerebellum & cerebral cortex

11

What are the major functions of the frontal lobe?

- Learned behavior
- Primary motor cortex
- Contains "Broca's area" for speech & language

12

What is the broad function of the parietal lobe?

Note that this is also called the "somatosensory cortex"
- Takes sensory info in & makes it conscious experience
- Integration of auditory, visual & somatosensory info

13

What is the broad function of the temproal lobe?

Contains "Wernicke's" area that functions in
- Reading
- Understanding & speaking written word
- Contains the primary auditory cortex

14

Where is the limbic system?

Medial aspect of the temporal lobe

15

What is the broad function of the occipital lobe?

Primary visual cortex & other functions associated with vision

16

What is the central sulcus?

Demarcation between the frontal & parietal lobes

17

What is the lateal sulcus?

This is the demarcation between the frontal & parietal lobes from the temporal lobe

18

What gyrus sits infront of the central sulcus?

Precentral gyrus--MOTOR

19

What gyrus sits behind the central sulcus?

Postcentral gyrus--SENSORY

20

What is the parieto-occipital sulcus? Where is this sulcus visualized?

Demarcation between occipital and parietal lobes, which is viewed from the MEDIAL aspect

21

What is the calcarine sulcus?

Sulcus in the occipital lobe itself, viewed MEDIALLY ina mid-sagittal cut

*****Note that the primary visual cortex surrounds the boundaries of this sulcus

22

Where is the insula? How do you find it?

Deep to the lateral fissure apart you'll find the insular lobe

23

What is the broad function of the insula?

Visceral function

24

What is the corpus callosum?

Connection between the right and left cerebral hemispheres

25

Where is the cingulate gyrus?

Superior to the corpus callosum

26

What are the parts of the limbic system?

Cingulate gyrus
Parahippocampal Gyrus
Uncus

27

What are the basal nuclei/ganglia of the brain?

Collections of nerve cell bodies imbedded within the cortex

28

What are the parts of the basal nuclei/ ganglia?

Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Globus Pallidus
Subthalamus
Substantia nigra

*****Subthalamus that is also part of the diencephalon

29

What is the general function of the basal nuclei?

Motor function

30

What is the diencephalon? What are the parts of the Diencephalon?

Collection of nuclei in the central position of the brain consisting of:
1) Thalamus
2) Hypothalamus
3) Subthalamus
4) Epithalamus

31

What is the function of the thalamus?

Relaying sensory information

32

What is the function of the hypothalamus?

Connection between the brain & endocrine system

33

What is the function of the epithalamus?

The epithalamus contains the pineal body & functions in circadian rhythms

34

Where are the hippocampus & amygdala?

Deep into the temporal lobe; amygdala is anterior to the hippocamus

35

What is the function of the hippocampus?

Memory
Spatial navigation

36

What does damage to the mammillary bodies present as?

Anterograde amneisa

37

What is the function of the amygdala?

Memory processing and emotional reactions
- Fear
- Aggression

38

What separates the two hemispheres of the cerebellum?

Vermis

39

What is the broad function of the cerebellum?

Refined motor function

40

What are the three parts of the brainstem?

1) Midbrain
2) Pons
3) Medulla

41

What is the landmark for the midbrain?

Cerebral peduncles

42

What is the Corpora Quadragemini? What is the function of the Corpora Quadragemini?

Four nuclei of the midbrain
- 2x superior= vision
- 2x inferior= auditory

43

What provides the anterior circulation of the brain?

Internal carotid arteries

****80%

44

What provides the posterior circulation of the brain?

Vertebral arteries

45

Where do the carotid arteries bifurcate into the internal & external carotid arteries?

Level of the thyroid cartilage

46

Where do the vertebral arteries enter the skull?

Foramen magnum

47

What artery do the vertebral arteries join to form?

Basilar artery

48

What are the branches of the internal carotid arteries?

Anterior Cerebral
Middle Cerebral

49

What connects that Anterior Cerebral arteries?

Anterior Communicating

50

What connects that Middle Cerebral arteries?

Posterior Communicating

51

What lobe of the brain does the anterior cerebral NOT supply?

Occipital

52

What are the two divisions of the middle cerebral artery?

Superior & inferior divisions
- Superior= frontal & parietal lobe
- Inferior= temporal lobe

******Middle cerebral supplies the insula itself

53

What are watershed territories? Why are the watershed territories clinically important?

The arteries the form the anterior circulation of the brain don't completely connect on the superior medial aspects of the brain; rather, each major artery (anterior & middle) sends small capillaries that anastomose

*****Prone to ischemic stroke

54

What are the branches of the vertebral arteries?

Posterior spinal artery
Anterior spinal artery
Posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA)

55

What are the branches of the basilar artery?

Anterior inferior cerebellar (AICA)
Superior cerebellar artery
Pontine arteries

56

Where does the anterior spinal artery run?

Anterior median fissure of the medulla

57

Where does the PICA branch from?

Basilar artery, distal/ lateral to the posterior spinal artery

58

What lobe does the posterior cerebral artery supply?

Inferior occipital lobe
Inferior temporal lobe

59

What is the calcarine branch of the posterior cerebral artery? What does it supply?

Branch of the posterior cerebral artery that supplies the visual cortex surrounding the Calcarine Sulcus.c

60

Where is the Cerebral Vein of Galen?

"Main Brain Drain Vein"

61

Where are the Basal veins of Rosenthal?

Help drain venous blood from the braimstem & enter the Great Cerebral Vein of Galen into the jugular system

62

What is the vein of Trolard?

Drains blood from the superior surface of the brain into the sagittal sinus

63

What is the Vein of Labbe?

Drains blood from the inferior surface of the of the brain

64

What are the bridging veins?

Veins that connect the vein of Trolard & Labbe

65

What is the clinical significance of the bridging veins?

Ripping/ tearing of these veins lead to Subdural hematoma