Flashcards in Exam 2 Study Guide Deck (31):

1

## Tautology

### column under the main operator: all true

2

## Self-Contradictory

### column under the main operator: all false

3

## Contingent

### column under the main operator: at least one true, at least one false

4

## Logically Equivalent

### columns under main operator: same truth value on each line

5

## Contradictory

### columns under main operator: opposite truth value on each line

6

## Consistent

### columns under main operator: there is at least one line on which the truth values are both true

7

## Inconsistent

### there is no line which the truth values are both true

8

## Disjunctive Syllogism

###
p v q

~p

q

9

## Pure Hypothetical Syllogism

###
p 3 q

q 3 r

p 3 r

10

## Modus Ponens

###
p 3 q

p

q

11

## Modus Tollens

###
p 3 q

~q

~p

12

## Affirming the Consequent

###
p 3 q

q

p

13

## Denying the Antecedent

###
p 3 q

~p

~q

14

## Constructive Delimma

###
(p 3 q) * (r 3 s)

p v r

q v s

15

## Destructive Delimma

###
(p 3 q) * (r 3 s)

~q v ~s

~p v ~r

16

##
1. Relevance of Similarities

2. Number of Similarities

3. Nature and Degree of Disanalogy

4. Number of Primary Analogues

5. Diversity of Primary Analogues

6. Specificity of the Conclusion

### 6 criteria for evaluating analogues

17

## P(A)= f/n

### formula for probability

18

##
odds(A)= f:u

(u= n-f)

### formula for odds

19

## A Priori (Classical Theory of Probability)

### knowledge about things not following from sensory experience

20

## A Posteriori

### knowledge about things following from sensory experience

21

## Subjective

### knowledge that comes from one individual’s perspective

22

## Objective

### knowledge that is independent of any individual’s perspective

23

## Restricted Conjunction Rule

### computes the probability of two event occurring together when the events are independent of each other

24

## General Conjunction Rule

### computes the probability of two events occurring together whether or not the events are independent

25

## Restricted Disjunction Rule

### computes the probability of either of the two events occurring when the events cannot both occur (mutually exclusive)

26

## General Disjunction Rule

### computes the probability of either of the two events whether or not they are mutually exclusive

27

## Negation Rule

### computes the probability of an event when the probability of the event not happening is either unknown or easily computed

28

## Utilitarianism

### actions are done in order to increase happiness of reduce sadness

29

## Deontology

### theory concerned with duties and rights

30

## Naturalistic Fallacy

### something is natural, therefore it is good or something is unnatural, therefore it is bad

31