Exam 2 Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 Study Guide Deck (31):
1

Tautology

column under the main operator: all true

2

Self-Contradictory

column under the main operator: all false

3

Contingent

column under the main operator: at least one true, at least one false

4

Logically Equivalent

columns under main operator: same truth value on each line

5

Contradictory

columns under main operator: opposite truth value on each line

6

Consistent

columns under main operator: there is at least one line on which the truth values are both true

7

Inconsistent

there is no line which the truth values are both true

8

Disjunctive Syllogism

p v q
~p
q

9

Pure Hypothetical Syllogism

p 3 q
q 3 r
p 3 r

10

Modus Ponens

p 3 q
p
q

11

Modus Tollens

p 3 q
~q
~p

12

Affirming the Consequent

p 3 q
q
p

13

Denying the Antecedent

p 3 q
~p
~q

14

Constructive Delimma

(p 3 q) * (r 3 s)
p v r
q v s

15

Destructive Delimma

(p 3 q) * (r 3 s)
~q v ~s
~p v ~r

16

1. Relevance of Similarities
2. Number of Similarities
3. Nature and Degree of Disanalogy
4. Number of Primary Analogues
5. Diversity of Primary Analogues
6. Specificity of the Conclusion

6 criteria for evaluating analogues

17

P(A)= f/n

formula for probability

18

odds(A)= f:u
(u= n-f)

formula for odds

19

A Priori (Classical Theory of Probability)

knowledge about things not following from sensory experience

20

A Posteriori

knowledge about things following from sensory experience

21

Subjective

knowledge that comes from one individual’s perspective

22

Objective

knowledge that is independent of any individual’s perspective

23

Restricted Conjunction Rule

computes the probability of two event occurring together when the events are independent of each other

24

General Conjunction Rule

computes the probability of two events occurring together whether or not the events are independent

25

Restricted Disjunction Rule

computes the probability of either of the two events occurring when the events cannot both occur (mutually exclusive)

26

General Disjunction Rule

computes the probability of either of the two events whether or not they are mutually exclusive

27

Negation Rule

computes the probability of an event when the probability of the event not happening is either unknown or easily computed

28

Utilitarianism

actions are done in order to increase happiness of reduce sadness

29

Deontology

theory concerned with duties and rights

30

Naturalistic Fallacy

something is natural, therefore it is good or something is unnatural, therefore it is bad

31

Egoism

sense of self-importance