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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (203)
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The liver lies mostly in which abdominal regions?

right hypochondrium and epigastric region


The spleen, funds and body of stomach lie mostly in which abdominal region?

left hypochondrium


Between what two layers of the abdomen would a extravasation of urine happen? What gender is it more common in? What causes it?

Between Scarpa's facia and deep fascia of abdomen, more common in men, and trauma of spongy urethra


What comprises the rectus sheath

aponeuroses of the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis


What structures does the rectus sheath enclose?

rectus abdominis, pyramidalis muscle, superior and inferior epigastric arteries and veins, and anterior primary rami of lower 6 thoracic nerves


What 4 vessels supply blood to anterior abdominal wall?

Superior and Inferior Epigastric, lumbar arteries, and deep circumflex iliac artery


Innervation of anterior abdominal wall

Lower 6 thoracic nerves


What forms the inguinal ligament and where does it extend to?

lower edge of the external oblique aponeurosis, and extends from ASIS to pubic tubercle


Is there a difference in diameter of inguinal canal between sexes? And what travels through it?

Yes, larger in males. Spermatic cord (males) Round ligament of uterus (female) and ilioinguinal nerve (both sexes)


What forms the conjoint tendon?

aponeuroses of internal oblique and transversus abdominis


What forms the anterior and posterior walls of inguinal canal?

Anterior: aponeurosis of external oblique, Posterior: conjoint tendon and transversalis fascia


What forms roof and floor of inguinal canal

roof: arching fibers internal oblique and transversus abdominis, floor: inguinal and lacunar ligaments


True or false, the superficial inguinal ring is made of three crura

false, made of two; lateral and medial crus


What forms the inguinal triangle?

Medially: rectus abdominis, Laterally: inferior epigastric vessels, Inferiorly: inguinal ligament


What is notable clinically about the inguinal triangle?

Area of potential weakness where direct inguinal hernias occur


In a child what direction is the inguinal canal facing?

much less oblique like in adult, more vertical


Why does the inguinal canal face obliquely in adults?

It strengthens the canal by being compressed by muscles


Are inguinal hernias more common in one sex? If so, why?

Yes, males. The males canal is larger in diameter for the spermatic cord


What is a indirect inguinal hernia? Where does it pass the inferior epigastric vessels?

Hernia that passes through deep inguinal ring, through canal, through superficial inguinal ring into groin region. Passes laterally to inferior epigastric vessels


How is a indirect inguinal hernia acquired? What percentage do indirect inguinal hernia account for?

Can be congenital or acquired through forced passage, 75%


What is a direct inguinal hernia? Where does it pass the inferior epigastric arteries? What percentage do direct inguinal hernias account for?

Punches directly through posterior wall of canal, bypassing deep inguinal ring (causes abdominal bulging)

Passes medially to vessels



Are femoral hernias more common in men or women?



The external spermatic fascia is derived from what?

external oblique aponeurosis


The cremasteric fascia is derived from what? How is it recognized

internal oblique muscle; bundles of muscle fibers


What are the bundles of muscle fibers in the cremasteric fascia collectively known as?

Cremaster muscle


What is the function of the cremaster muscle?

Control temperature of sperm


What is the internal spermatic fascia derived from?

trasversalis fascia


What is the ductus deferens

muscular duct which transports sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct


What is the pampiniform plexus of veins?

extensive network of veins, bulk of spermatic cord. Join at deep inguinal ring to form testicular vein


True or false, the ilioinguinal nerve runs through inguinal canal and superficial inguinal ring, accompanying the spermatic cord which it is a part of

False, it does accompany the spermatic cord, but it is not a part of it