Flashcards in Exam 3 -- Parkinson and Huntington's Disease Deck (20):
Parkinson's disease (aka "the shaking palsy") is more common in which gender?
True or false: smoking increases the risk of Parkinson's disease.
False; it may actually decrease the risk.
What are the features of Parkinson's disease?
Bradykinesia, (resting) tremor, rigidity, and postural instability.
Which of the features of Parkinson's is the most common? Which is most commonly the presenting symptom?
Bradykinesia is the most common feature, but tremor is the most common presenting symptom.
Stooped posture and _______________ (increased/decreased) arm swing when walking are two of the ways in which Parkinsonian rigidity can manifest.
Of the four features of Parkinson's disease, which occurs later in the disease and is not a diagnostic criteria?
Jeopardy style: Parkinson's disease features depletion of this neurotransmitter from the basal ganglia.
What is dopamine?
Which part of the basal ganglia is damaged in Parkinson's disease? What is the name for the abnormal protein clumps you might find there?
Substantia nigra; Lewy bodies.
Carbidopa-levodopa is the drug of choice in treating Parkinson's disease. What does the carbidopa portion do? What about the levodopa?
Levodopa is a dopamine precursor that is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier. Carbidopa protect l-dopa from being converted to dopamine before it crosses the BBB.
Which class of drugs for Parkinson's disease works well for patients under 65 years?
Doapmine receptor agonists (bromocriptine, pramipexole, ropinirole, apomorphine)
Which class of drugs for Parkinson's disease works by slowing the breakdown of existing dopamine?
Monoamine Oxidase-B inhibitors (drugs end in -giline)
Which class of drugs for Parkinson's disease are good for patients with tremor?
What are the main features of Huntington's disease?
Chorea (dance-like unpatterened movement, dystonia), psychiatric problems, and dementia.
Huntington's disease is usually diagnosed in what age range? Which gender has a higher predilection?
Usually diagnosed in middle ages (30-50), and there is no gender predilection.
Huntington's disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. The mutant protein responsible, huntingtin, is encoded on chromosome 4. What trinucleotide pattern is found repeating many more times in patients with Huntington's as compared to normal patients?
What part of the basal ganglia is damaged in Huntington's disease?
The caudate and putamen
What is the drug of choice for chorea in Huntington's disease?
What drugs for Huntington's disease work by blocking dopamine receptors?
Risperidone, olanzapine, haloperidol.
The average age of death for patients with Huntington's disease is 51-57; most survive 10-25 years after onset.