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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (53)
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1

A child's first visit to a dental office should occur when?

After the eruption of the first primary tooth and no later than age 1; recommended that infants be seen every 6 months

2

Best fluoride for white spot lesions in primary teeth

Varnish

3

Which primary teeth are affected first for caries?

Max. anteriors & primary molars
Lesions develop in all but mand. anteriors
Mand. incisors & canines are protected

4

Dental History of the Parents and Children:

Frequent visits for the parents and children
Caries & perio experience of parents and children
Tooth eruption patterns
Parents OH habits
Teeth problems
Deep pits & fissures in primary molars
No spacing

5

Feeding pattern Infant (birth- 1 year):

Breast/ bottle fed
Formula used/ Fluoride content in water
Problems in feeding
Problems with sleeping
Pacifier, thumb, or finger in mouth
Other liquids

6

Feeding pattern Toddler (1-3 years) and Preschool Child (3-5 years):

Number of snacks per day and time period
Types of snacks
Amount of juice consumed
Eating snacks without supervision
Problems with eating

7

Pedo Oral Care: Fluoride Exposure

History of exposure
Fluoride level of eater supply
Well water
Nonfluoridated bottle water
Type of toothpaste (Training until they know how to spit, after they can spit.. use regular)
Fluoride supplementation

8

Pedo Oral Care: Personal Oral Care Habits

Parents/Caregivers- wipe the inside of infants mouth with wet guaze daily
Brush teeth with water until age 2
Frequency and time of day
Positioning of child for access to pral cavity
Lift lip to brush anterior teeth
Child's behavior

9

Pedo Oral Care: Barriers to Dental Care

Lack of belief in prevention
Language
Cost
Fear
No dental home
Dentist does not see children under 3 years
Dentist's hours do not fit into parents schedule
Dentist does not accept dental insurance
Transportation

10

Early Childhood Caries: Do not use these terms anymore...

Nursing caries
Baby bottle caries
Rampant caries

11

Pedo Oral Care: Microbiology- Strep mutans and Lactobacilli

High levels of Streptococcus mutans from saliva and dental biofilm
Transfer from parents or caregiver's mouth to child
Lactobacilli in large numbers in the dental biofilm

12

Pedo Oral Care: Predisposing Factors

Place child in bed with bottle
Bottle contains sweetened milk
Prolonged breast or bottle feedings
Ineffective or no daily biofilm removal from teeth

13

Pedo Oral Care: Effects

Max. anterior teeth and primary molars are first to be affected
While the sucking is active, the liquid passes beyond the teeth
The nippe covers the mand. anterior teeth, so they are rarely affected

14

Recognition of ECC:

Demineralization on cervical 1/3 of max. anteriors and proximal surfaces
Remineralization can occur with use of fluoride paste and topical application
At later stage- lesions appear dark brown (This is decay)
Eventually the crown of the tooth may be destroyed, abcess can occur

15

Wiping Prior Tooth Eruption:

Need to remove biofilm daily by wiping gums, inside cheeks, lips, and tongue with clean wet cloth
Should be done daily
Bath time is a great time to remove it

16

Brushing Pedo Patients:

Recommend soft toothbrush
Emphasize brushing breakfast, morning, and night
Replace every 3 months

17

Diet and Health for Pedo Patients:

Healthy snacks between meals
Limit intake of retentive carbohydrates
Teach relationship between frequent and large amounts sweetened beverage intake and caries and obesity

18

What is the regular dental visit for children?

Every 6mo

19

When is the best time to schedule dental visits?

Early morning or after naps (when child is not tired he is more apt to cooperate

20

Purpose of Oral Prophy for Pedo Patients:

Provide positive experience
Remove biofilm, stain, calculus, and do exam
Educate patients

21

Child Management:
Show, Tell, and Do.....

Always explain everything you use bf doing so
Use fun names: tooth feeler, slurpy straw, elevator chair, sugar bugs
Keep explainations brief and do procedure quick
Let them watch you with hand mirror (eliminates fear)

22

What do you do when the child cries?

Stop procedure
Comfort
Avoid raising voice
If crying ceases ask if they are ready to begin again

23

No/little history of carious lesions; extractions, or restorations; no risk factors indicated; adequate protective factors

Low caries risk

24

History of carious lesions; extractions, or restorations, some risk factors but show no signs of continuing caries; could easily move to high risk; some protective factors

Moderate caries risk

25

Observable and/or radiographic carious lesions present; more than two risk factors; inadequate protective factors

High caries risk

26

High caries risk plus dry mouth or special needs

Extreme caries risk

27

Provide information to parents and caregivers on what to expect in a child's current and next developmental stage so that the child's needs can be anticipated and properly managed

Anticipatory guidance

28

Acronym that refers to the phrase "caries management by risk assessment"

CAMBRA

29

Child younger than 1 year of age

Infant

30

Sucking fingers, thumb, pacifier, or other objects for comfort

Nonnutritive sucking

31

Eating or drinking at will throughout the day or evening

Grazing

32

Discrimination toward/against the older adult population

Ageism

33

A form of irreversible dementia, usually occurring in older adulthood, characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, disorientation, and other features of dementia

Alzheimer's disease

34

The anatomic or physiologic age of a person as determined by changes in organismic structure and function

Biologic age

35

The actual measure of time elapsed since a person's birth

Chronological age

36

Severe mental deterioration involving impairment of mental ability; organic loss of intellectual function

Dementia

37

Difficulty in swallowing

Dysphagia

38

Low bone mass resulting from an excess of bone resorption over bone formation, with resultant bone fragility and increased risk of fracture

Osteoporosis

39

The age of a person as determined by his or her feelings, attitudes, and life perspective

Psychological age

40

An immunological disorder characterized by in sufficient production of the lacrimal gland to produce tears and the salivary glands to produce saliva that results in abnormally dry eyes and mouth

Sjogren's syndrome

41

Ringing, buzzing, tinkling, or hissing sounds in the ear

Tinnitus

42

Older population

55 and older

43

Elderly

65 and older

44

Aged

75 and older

45

Very old

85 and older

46

Physiologic Aging: Musculoskeletal System

Skeletal Integrity: Influenced by intake of Ca, Phosphorus, Fluoride

Bone Volume: Decrease gradually after age 40, depending on diet, nutrition, exercise

Osteoporosis: Common in individuals older than age 60, increases with age

Loss of Muscle Function: Tremors

Osteoarthritis: Major cause of disability, affects the weight-bearing joints. AKA Degenerative Joint Disease

47

Physiologic Aging: Skin

1. Thin, wrinkled, and dry with pigmented spots
2. Loss of tone and atrophy of sweat glands
3. Reduced tolerance to temperature extremes and solar exposure

48

Physiologic Aging: Cardiovascular System

1. Decrease in cardiac output; increase in size of left ventricle
2. Blood vessels become less elastic
3. Some atherosclerosis is considered normal with aging
4. Changes in cardio vasculature do affect function under normal, unstressful conditions

49

Bone disease involving loss of mineral content and bone mass; common in pts. older than 60 years of age

Bone is soft

Osteoporosis

50

What causes osteoporosis?

Depletion of estrogen after menopause, or calcium deficiency

51

How do you treat osteoporosis?

1. Bisphosphonates- inhibit bone resorption
2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)
3. Calcitonin
4. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)- stimulates bone formation

52

Pro-long use of bisphosphonates causes:

Osteonecrosis

53

What kind of oral changes occur in aging?

Lip Changes
Oral Mucosa
Tongue Changes
Xerostomia
Oral Candidiasis