Exam 4: Inflammation, immune function, and HIV (11 questions) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4: Inflammation, immune function, and HIV (11 questions) Deck (36):
1

Inflammation: Neutrophils

- 55% to 70% of WBC

- Function is phagocytosis
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC)

2

Inflammation: Macrophages

- 4-8%
- Phagocytosis
- Repair
- Antigen presenting/processing
- Secretion of cytokines

3

Inflammation: Basophils

- 0-2%
- Cause the symptoms of inflammation
- Blood to collect in capillaries and arterioles
- Increases capillary permeability

4

Inflammation: Eosinophils

- 0-4%
- Active against parasitic larvae
- Limits inflammatory reactions
- Increases during an allergic response

5

Antibody mediated immunity: Cells involved

- Antibodies are produced by sensitized β -lymphocytes (β-cells)
- β-cells start as stem cells

6

Antibody mediated immunity: Pathology of process

1. Exposure
2. Antigen recognition
3. Sensitization
----- Plasma cell
----- Memory cell
4. Antibody production and release
Circulating antibodies can be transferred to another person
5. Antibody-antigen binding
6. Antigen-binding actions
----Agglutination, lysis, complement fixation, precipitation, inactivation

7

Antibody mediated immunity: Antibody classification

- IgA
- IgD
- IgE
- IgG
- IgM

8

Antibody mediated immunity: Active immunity

- Body takes an active role in producing antibodies

- Natural active immunity
Antigen enters body without human assistance

- Artificial active immunity
Protection developed by vaccination or immunization

9

Antibody mediated immunity: Passive immunity

- Transferred from another person
Short term effect

- Natural passive immunity
Example: mother to baby when breast fed

- Artificial passive immunity
Injecting antibodies from another person
Short term

10

Cell-mediated immunity: T-lymphocytes

- Helper/inducer cells
T-4 or CD4 cells, secrete lymphokines, increase bone marrow production when needed

- Suppressor cells
T-8 cells, prevent hypersensitivity, secrete lymphokines, inhibit growth & activation of immune system
-----/cytolytic T-cells (Tc)
---------------Destroy cells containing processed antigen’s HLA, effective against parasites, protozoa

11

Cell-mediated immunity: Natural Killer Cells (NK)

- CD16 , can destroy without previous sensitization
- Destroys abnormal or unhealthy cells

12

Cell-mediated immunity: Cytokines: small protein hormones

- Act as messengers that tell specific cells how to respond
- Control many inflammatory and immune responses

- Monokines
When produced by macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils or monocytes

- Lymphokines
When produced by T-cells

13

Hypersensitivity reactions: Type I: Rapid Hypersensitivity Reactions

- Examples: Allergic Rhinitis, Anaphylaxis, Latex Allergy

- Diagnosis: Allergy test: scratch test, intradermal. Antihistamines & glucocorticoids discontinued for 4 weeks prior to testing
Repeat Open Application Testing (ROAT). & blood testing

- Minor reaction treatment: Antihistamines, corticosterioids

- Major reaction treatment: Epinephrine

- Also IgE

14

Hypersensitivity reactions: Type II: Cytotoxic Reactions

- Examples: Hemolytic anemias, Thrombocytopenic purpura, Hemolytic transfusion reactions, Goodpasture’s syndrome


- Diagnosis: Allergy test: scratch test, intradermal. Antihistamines & glucocorticoids discontinued for 4 weeks prior to testing
Repeat Open Application Testing (ROAT). & Blood testing



- Minor reaction treatment: Antihistamines, corticosterioids


- Major reaction treatment: Epinephrine

-Also Type IgG

15

Hypersensitivity reactions: Type III: Immune Complex Reactions

- Examples: Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, serum sickness


- Diagnosis: Allergy test: scratch test, intradermal. Antihistamines & glucocorticoids discontinued for 4 weeks prior to testing
Repeat Open Application Testing (ROAT). & blood testing


- Minor reaction treatment: Antihistamines, corticosterioids


- Major reaction treatment: Epinephrine

16

Hypersensitivity reactions: Type IV: Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions

- Examples: Positive purified protein derivative, Contact dermatitis, Poison ivy skin rashes, Insect stings, Tissue transplant rejection, Sarcoidosis



- Diagnosis: Allergy test: scratch test, intradermal. Antihistamines & glucocorticoids discontinued for 4 weeks prior to testing
Repeat Open Application Testing (ROAT). & blood testing


- Minor reaction treatment: Antihistamines, corticosterioids


- Major reaction treatment: Epinephrine

17

Hypersensitivity reactions: Type V Stimulatory Reaction

Example: Graves disease

Diagnosis: Thyroid function

Treatment: Anti-thyroid medication

18

Sjogren’s syndrome

- Often appears with other autoimmune disorders

- Dry eyes, dry mucous membranes of nose and mouth (xerostomia), vaginal dryness

- Insufficient tears causing inflammation/ ulceration of cornea

- No cure; intensity and progression can be slowed

19

Goodpasture’s syndrome

- Autoantibodies made against glomerular basement membrane and neutrophils

- Lungs and kidneys

20

Goodpasture’s syndrome symptoms

Shortness of breath
- hemoptysis
- Decreased urine output
- weight gain
- edema
- hypertension
- tachycardia

21

Goodpasture’s syndrome treatment

- Treatment: high-dose corticosteroids

- May require dialysis or kidney transplant

22

HIV pathophysiology

- Retrovirus
- Genetic material is RNA, single stranded ribonucleic acid
- Reverse transcriptase (RT) is used to convert ss-RNA into ds-DNA
- Integrase enzyme allows the viral ds-DNA to be inserted into the ds-DNA of the host

23

HIV diagnostic testing

- Positive test from an HIV antibody screening test (ELISA) confirmed by a positive result from a supplemental HIV antibody test (Western blot or IFA)

24

HIV symptoms: Early

- Rash and sore throat

25

HIV symptoms: Late

- Life-threatening opportunistic infections
- death

26

HIV Stages: Stage 1

- Confirmed HIV infection
- CD4 T-cell count > 500 cells mm3

27

HIV Stages: Stage 2

- Confirmed HIV infection
- CD4 T-cell count between 200 and 499 cells mm3
- Greater than 500 is normal.

28

HIV stages: Stage 3

- Confirmed HIV infection
- CD4 T-cell count < 200 cells mm3 or > 200 with a documented AIDS defining illness

29

HIV stages: Stage 4

- Confirmed HIV infection
- No other information regarding CD4 cell counts or AIDS defining illness
- You do not know the answers to the question

30

HIV Patient teaching

- Avoid crowds
- Don't share personal toilet articles
- Bathe daily
- Clean toothbrush weekly
- Wash hands
- Do not change pet litter boxes
- Take temp. once a week
- Report temp >100 F, persistent cough, pus or drainage from area, presence of boil, cloudy urine
- Take medication
- Safe sex
- Avoid Travel to poor conditions

31

HIV medication: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

- zidovudine
- To treat HIV infection in adults and children 4 weeks of age and older.
- To prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV

32

HIV medication: Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)

- delavirdine
- prevent HIV from multiplying and can reduce the amount of HIV in the body

33

HIV medication: Protease Inhibitors (PIs)

- atazanavir
- prevent HIV from multiplying and can reduce the amount of HIV in the body.

34

HIV medication: Fusion Inhibitors

- enfuvirtide
- For people whose HIV infection is not well controlled by ongoing treatment with other HIV medicines
- block HIV from getting into and infecting certain cells of the immune system

35

HIV medication: Entry inhibitors

- maraviroc
- When attaches to the CCR5 coreceptor, certain strains of HIV—called R5 tropic virus—cannot attach to, enter, or infect the cell.
- should be used only in people whose strain of HIV uses the CCR5 coreceptor.

36

HIV medication: Integrase inhibitors

- raltegravir
- Integrase inhibitors block an HIV enzyme called integrase