Flashcards in Exam III Chapter 31 Deck (38):
1. The nurse is caring for a 4-year-old child immobilized by a fractured hip. Which complication should the nurse monitor related to the child’s immobilization status?
a. Metabolic rate increases
b. Increased joint mobility leading to contractures
c. Bone calcium increases, releasing excess calcium into the body (hypercalcemia)
d. Venous stasis leading to thrombi or emboli formation
The physiologic effects of immobilization, as a result of decreased muscle contraction, include venous stasis. This can lead to pulmonary emboli or thrombi. The metabolic rate decreases with immobilization. Loss of joint mobility leads to contractures. Bone demineralization with osteoporosis and hypercalcemia occur with immobilization.
2. The nurse is caring for a preschool child immobilized by a spica cast. Which effect on metabolism should the nurse monitor on this child related to the immobilized status?
b. Decreased metabolic rate
c. Positive nitrogen balance
d. Increased production of stress hormones
Immobilization causes a decreased metabolic rate with slowing of all systems and a decreased food intake. Immobilization leads to hypercalcemia and causes a negative nitrogen balance secondary to muscle atrophy. A decreased production of stress hormones occurs with decreased physical and emotional coping capacity.
3. The nurse should monitor for which effect on the cardiovascular system when a child is immobilized?
a. Venous stasis
b. Increased vasopressor mechanism
c. Normal distribution of blood volume
d. Increased efficiency of orthostatic neurovascular reflexes
The physiologic effects of immobilization, as a result of decreased muscle contraction, include venous stasis. This can lead to pulmonary emboli or thrombi. A decreased vasopressor mechanism results in orthostatic hypotension, syncope, hypotension, decreased cerebral blood flow, and tachycardia. An altered distribution of blood volume is found with decreased cardiac workload and exercise tolerance. Immobilization causes a decreased efficiency of orthostatic neurovascular reflexes with an inability to adapt readily to the upright position and with pooling of blood in the extremities in the upright position.
4. Which can result from the bone demineralization associated with immobility?
b. Urinary retention
c. Pooling of blood
d. Susceptibility to infection
Bone demineralization leads to a negative calcium balance, osteoporosis, pathologic fractures, extraosseous bone formation, and renal calculi. Urinary retention is secondary to the effect of immobilization on the urinary tract. Pooling of blood is a result of the cardiovascular effects of immobilization. Susceptibility to infection can result from the effects of immobilization on the respiratory and renal systems.
5. A young girl has just injured her ankle at school. In addition to calling the child’s parents, the most appropriate, immediate action by the school nurse is to:
a. apply ice.
b. observe for edema and discoloration.
c. encourage child to assume a position of comfort.
d. obtain parental permission for administration of acetaminophen or aspirin.
Soft-tissue injuries should be iced immediately. In addition to ice, the extremity should be rested, be elevated, and have compression applied. Observing for edema and discoloration, encouraging the child to assume a position of comfort, and obtaining parental permission for administration of acetaminophen or aspirin are not immediate priorities. The application of ice can reduce the severity of the injury.
6. Which term is used to describe a type of fracture that does not produce a break in the skin?
If a fracture does not produce a break in the skin, it is called a simple, or closed, fracture. A compound, or open, fracture is one with an open wound through which the bone protrudes. A complicated fracture is one in which the bone fragments damage other organs or tissues. A comminuted fracture occurs when small fragments of bone are broken from the fractured shaft and lie in the surrounding tissue. These are rare in children.
7. Kristin, age 10 years, sustained a fracture in the epiphyseal plate of her right fibula when she fell off of a tree. When discussing this injury with her parents, the nurse should consider which statement?
a. Healing is usually delayed in this type of fracture.
b. Growth can be affected by this type of fracture.
c. This is an unusual fracture site in young children.
d. This type of fracture is inconsistent with a fall.
Detection of epiphyseal injuries is sometimes difficult, but fractures involving the epiphysis or epiphyseal plate present special problems in determining whether bone growth will be affected. Healing of epiphyseal injuries is usually prompt. The epiphysis is the weakest point of the long bones. This is a frequent site of damage during trauma.
8. The nurse is conducting a staff in-service on casts. Which is an advantage to using a fiberglass cast instead of a plaster of Paris cast?
b. Dries rapidly
c. Molds closely to body parts
d. Smooth exterior
A synthetic casting material dries in 5 to 30 minutes as compared with a plaster cast, which takes 10 to 72 hours to dry. Synthetic casts are more expensive and have a rough exterior, which may scratch surfaces. Plaster casts mold closer to body parts.
9. The nurse is conducting teaching to parents of a 7-year-old child who fractured an arm and is being discharged with a cast. Which instruction should be included in the teaching?
a. Swelling of the fingers is to be expected for the next 48 hours.
b. Immobilize the shoulder to decrease pain in the arm.
c. Allow the affected limb to hang down for 1 hour each day.
d. Elevate casted arm when resting and when sitting up.
The injured extremity should be kept elevated while resting and in a sling when upright. This will increase venous return. Swelling of the fingers may indicate neurovascular damage and should be reported immediately. Permanent damage can occur within 6 to 8 hours. Joints above and below the cast on the affected extremity should be moved. The affected limb should not hang down for any length of time.
10. The nurse uses the palms of the hands when handling a wet cast for which reason?
a. To assess dryness of the cast
b. To facilitate easy turning
c. To keep the patient’s limb balanced
d. To avoid indenting the cast
Wet casts should be handled by the palms of the hands, not the fingers, to avoid creating pressure points. Assessing dryness, facilitating easy turning, and keeping the patient’s limb balanced are not reasons for using the palms of the hand rather than the fingers when handling a wet cast.
11. Which should cause a nurse to suspect that an infection has developed under a cast?
a. Complaint of paresthesia
b. Cold toes
c. Increased respirations
d. “Hot spots” felt on cast surface
If hot spots are felt on the cast surface, they usually indicate infection beneath the area. This should be reported so that a window can be made in the cast to observe the site. The five Ps of ischemia from a vascular injury are pain, pallor, pulselessness, paresthesia, and paralysis. Paresthesia is an indication of vascular injury, not infection. Cold toes may be indicative of too tight a cast and need further evaluation. Increased respirations may be indicative of a respiratory tract infection or pulmonary emboli. This should be reported, and child should be evaluated.
12. A child is upset because, when the cast is removed from her leg, the skin surface is caked with desquamated skin and sebaceous secretions. Which should the nurse suggest to remove this material?
a. Soak in a bathtub.
b. Vigorously scrub leg.
c. Apply powder to absorb material.
d. Carefully pick material off leg.
Simple soaking in the bathtub is usually sufficient for the removal of the desquamated skin and sebaceous secretions. It may take several days to eliminate the accumulation completely. The parents and child should be advised not to scrub the leg vigorously or forcibly remove this material because it may cause excoriation and bleeding. Oil or lotion, but not powder, may provide comfort for the child.
13. An adolescent with a fractured femur is in Russell’s traction. Surgical intervention to correct the fracture is scheduled for the morning. Nursing actions should include which action?
a. Maintaining continuous traction until 1 hour before the scheduled surgery
b. Maintaining continuous traction and checking position of traction frequently
c. Releasing traction every hour to perform skin care
d. Releasing traction once every 8 hours to check circulation
When the muscles are stretched, muscle spasm ceases and permits realignment of the bone ends. The continued maintenance of traction is important during this phase because releasing the traction allows the muscle’s normal contracting ability to again cause malpositioning of the bone ends. Continuous traction must be maintained to keep the bone ends in satisfactory realignment. Releasing at any time, either 1 hour before surgery, once every hour for skin care, or once
14. Which is a type of skin traction with legs in an extended position?
d. Buck extension
Buck extension traction is a type of skin traction with the legs in an extended position. It is used primarily for short-term immobilization, preoperatively with dislocated hips, for correcting contractures, or for bone deformities such as Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Dunlop traction is an upper-extremity traction used for fractures of the humerus. Bryant traction is skin traction with the legs flexed at a 90-degree angle at the hip. Russell traction uses skin traction on the lower leg and a padded sling under the knee. The combination of longitudinal and perpendicular traction allows realignment of the lower extremity and immobilizes the hips and knees in a flexed position.
15. Which type of traction uses skin traction on the lower leg and a padded sling under the knee?
d. Buck extension
Russell traction uses skin traction on the lower leg and a padded sling under the knee. The combination of longitudinal and perpendicular traction allows realignment of the lower extremity and immobilizes the hips and knees in a flexed position. Dunlop traction is an upper-extremity traction used for fractures of the humerus. Bryant traction is skin traction with the legs flexed at a 90-degree angle at the hip. Buck extension traction is a type of skin traction with the legs in an extended position. It is used primarily for short-term immobilization, preoperatively with dislocated hips, for correcting contractures, or for bone deformities such as Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.
16. Four-year-old David is placed in Buck extension traction for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. He is crying with pain as the nurse assesses that the skin of his right foot is pale with an absence of pulse. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Notify the practitioner of the changes noted.
b. Give the child medication to relieve the pain.
c. Reposition the child and notify physician.
d. Chart the observations and check the extremity again in 15 minutes.
The absence of a pulse and change in color of the foot must be reported immediately for evaluation by the practitioner. Pain medication should be given after the practitioner is notified. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is an emergency condition; immediate reporting is indicated. The findings should be documented with ongoing assessment.
17. Which is an appropriate nursing intervention when caring for a child in traction?
a. Remove adhesive traction straps daily to prevent skin breakdown.
b. Assess for tightness, weakness, or contractures in uninvolved joints and muscles.
c. Provide active range-of-motion exercises to affected extremity three times a day.
d. Keep the child in one position to maintain good alignment.
Traction places stress on the affected bone, joint, and muscles. The nurse must assess for tightness, weakness, or contractures developing in the uninvolved joints and muscles. The adhesive straps should be released or replaced only when absolutely necessary. Active, passive, or active with resistance exercises should be carried out for the unaffected extremity only. Movement is expected with children. Each time the child moves, the nurse should check to ensure that proper alignment is maintained.
18. The nurse is teaching a family how to care for their infant in a Pavlik harness to treat developmental dysplasia of the hip. Which should be included?
a. Apply lotion or powder to minimize skin irritation.
b. Remove harness several times a day to prevent contractures.
c. Return to clinic every 1 to 2 weeks.
d. Place diaper over harness, preferably using a superabsorbent disposable diaper that is relatively thin.
Infants have a rapid growth pattern. The child needs to be assessed by the practitioner every 1 to 2 weeks for possible adjustments. Lotions and powders should not be used with the harness. The harness should not be removed, except as directed by the practitioner. A thin disposable diaper can be placed under the harness.
19. A neonate is born with bilateral mild talipes equinovarus (clubfoot). When the parents ask the nurse how this will be corrected, the nurse should give which explanation?
a. Traction is tried first.
b. Surgical intervention is needed.
c. Frequent, serial casting is tried first.
d. Children outgrow this condition when they learn to walk.
Serial casting is begun shortly after birth before discharge from nursery. Successive casts allow for gradual stretching of skin and tight structures on the medial side of the foot. Manipulation and casting of the leg are repeated frequently (every week) to accommodate the rapid growth of early infancy. Serial casting is the preferred treatment. Surgical intervention is done only if serial casting is not successful. Children do not improve without intervention.
20. A 4-year-old child is newly diagnosed with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Nursing considerations should include which action?
a. Encouraging normal activity for as long as is possible
b. Explaining the cause of the disease to the child and family
c. Preparing the child and family for long-term, permanent disabilities
d. Teaching the family the care and management of the corrective appliance
The family needs to learn the purpose, function, application, and care of the corrective device and the importance of compliance to achieve the desired outcome. The initial therapy is rest and non–weight bearing, which helps reduce inflammation and restore motion. Legg-Calvé-Perthes is a disease with an unknown etiology. A disturbance of circulation to the femoral capital epiphysis produces an ischemic aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. The disease is self-limiting, but the ultimate outcome of therapy depends on early and efficient therapy and the child’s age at onset.
21. The nurse is taking care of an adolescent diagnosed with kyphosis. Which describes this condition?
a. Lateral curvature of the spine
b. Immobility of the shoulder joint
c. Exaggerated concave lumbar curvature of the spine
d. Increased convex angulation in the curve of the thoracic spine
Kyphosis is an abnormally increased convex angulation in the curve of the thoracic spine. Scoliosis is a complex spinal deformity usually involving lateral curvature, spinal rotation causing rib asymmetry, and thoracic hypokyphosis. Ankylosis is the immobility of a joint. Lordosis is an exaggerated concave lumbar curvature of the spine.
22. A school nurse is conducting a staff in-service to other school nurses on idiopathic scoliosis. During which period of child development does idiopathic scoliosis become most noticeable?
a. Newborn period
b. When child starts to walk
c. Preadolescent growth spurt
Idiopathic scoliosis is most noticeable during the preadolescent growth spurt. Idiopathic scoliosis is seldom apparent before age 10 years. Diagnosis usually occurs during the preadolescent growth spurt.
23. The nurse is preparing an adolescent with scoliosis for a Luque-rod segmental spinal instrumentation procedure. Which consideration should the nurse include?
a. Nasogastric intubation and urinary catheter may be required.
b. Ambulation will not be allowed for up to 3 months.
c. Surgery eliminates the need for casting and bracing.
d. Discomfort can be controlled with nonpharmacologic methods.
Luque-rod segmental spinal instrumentation is a surgical procedure. Nasogastric intubation and urinary catheterization may be required. Ambulation is allowed as soon as possible. Depending on the instrumentation used, most patients walk by the second or third postoperative day. Casting and bracing are required postoperatively. The child usually has considerable pain for the first few days after surgery. Intravenous opioids should be administered on a regular basis.
24. The nurse is taking care of a 10-year-old child who has osteomyelitis. Which treatment plan is considered the primary method of treating osteomyelitis?
a. Joint replacement
b. Bracing and casting
c. Intravenous antibiotic therapy
d. Long-term corticosteroid therapy
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone, most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The treatment of choice is antibiotics. Joint replacement, bracing and casting, and long-term corticosteroid therapy are not indicated for infectious processes.`
25. A nurse is conducting a staff in-service on childhood cancers. Which is the primary site of osteosarcoma?
Osteosarcoma is the most frequently encountered malignant bone cancer in children. The peak incidence is between ages 10 and 25 years. More than half occur in the femur. After the femur, most of the remaining sites are the humerus, tibia, pelvis, jaw, and phalanges.
26. The nurse is taking care of an adolescent with osteosarcoma. The parents ask the nurse about treatment. The nurse should make which accurate response about treatment for osteosarcoma?
a. Treatment usually consists of surgery and chemotherapy.
b. Amputation of affected extremity is rarely necessary.
c. Intensive irradiation is the primary treatment.
d. Bone marrow transplantation offers the best chance of long-term survival.
The optimal therapy for osteosarcoma is a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Intensive irradiation and bone marrow transplantation are usually not part of the therapeutic management.
27. An adolescent with osteosarcoma is scheduled for a leg amputation in 2 days. The nurse’s approach should include which action?
a. Answering questions with straightforward honesty
b. Avoiding discussing the seriousness of the condition
c. Explaining that, although the amputation is difficult, it will cure the cancer
d. Assisting the adolescent in accepting the amputation as better than a long course of chemotherapy
Honesty is essential to gain the child’s cooperation and trust. The diagnosis of cancer should not be disguised with falsehoods. The adolescent should be prepared for the surgery so he or she has time to reflect on the diagnosis and subsequent treatment. This allows questions to be answered. To accept the need for radical surgery, the child must be aware of the lack of alternatives for treatment. Amputation is necessary, but it will not guarantee a cure. Chemotherapy is an integral part of the therapy with surgery. The child should be informed of the need for chemotherapy and its side effects before surgery.
28. Which medication is usually tried first when a child is diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)?
c. Cytotoxic drugs such as methotrexate
d. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
NSAIDs are the first drugs used in JIA. Naproxen, ibuprofen, and tolmetin are approved for use in children. Aspirin, once the drug of choice, has been replaced by the NSAIDs because they have fewer side effects and easier administration schedules. Corticosteroids are used for life-threatening complications, incapacitating arthritis, and uveitis. Methotrexate is a second-line therapy for JIA.
29. The nurse is caring for a school-age child diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Which intervention should be a priority?
a. Apply ice packs to relieve stiffness and pain.
b. Administer acetaminophen to reduce inflammation.
c. Teach the child and family correct administration of medications.
d. Encourage range-of-motion exercises during periods of inflammation.
The management of JIA is primarily pharmacologic. The family should be instructed regarding administration of medications and the value of regular schedule of administration to maintain a satisfactory blood level in the body. They need to know that NSAIDs should not be given on an empty stomach and to be alert for signs of toxicity. Warm moist heat is best for relieving stiffness and pain. Acetaminophen does not have antiinflammatory effects. Range-of-motion exercises should not be done during periods of inflammation.
30. The nurse is caring for a 12-year-old child with a left leg below the knee amputation (BKA). The child had the surgery 1 week ago. Which intervention should the nurse plan to implement for this child?
a. Elevate the left stump on a pillow.
b. Place ice pack on the stump.
c. Encourage the child to use an overhead bed trapeze when repositioning.
d. Replace the ace wrap covering the stump with a gauze dressing.
Use of the overhead bed trapeze should be encouraged to begin to build up the arm muscles necessary for walking with crutches. Stump elevation may be used during the first 24 hours, but after this time, the extremity should not be left in this position because contractures in the proximal joint will develop and seriously hamper ambulation. Ice would not be an appropriate intervention and would decrease circulation to the stump. Stump shaping is done postoperatively with special elastic bandaging using a figure-eight bandage, which applies pressure in a cone-shaped fashion. This technique decreases stump edema, controls hemorrhage, and aids in developing desired contours so the child will bear weight on the posterior aspect of the skin flap rather than on the end of the stump. This wrap should not be replaced with a gauze dressing.
31. A nurse is conducting discharge teaching for parents of an infant with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Further teaching is indicated if the parents make which statement?
a. “We will be very careful handling the baby.”
b. “We will lift the baby by the buttocks when diapering.”
c. “We’re glad there is a cure for this disorder.”
d. “We will schedule follow-up appointments as instructed.”
The treatment for OI is primarily supportive. Although patients and families are optimistic about new research advances, there is no cure. The use of bisphosphonate therapy with IV pamidronate to promote increased bone density and prevent fractures has become standard therapy for many children with OI; however, long bones are weakened by prolonged treatment. Infants and children with this disorder require careful handling to prevent fractures. They must be supported when they are being turned, positioned, moved, and held. Even changing a diaper may cause a fracture in severely affected infants. These children should never be held by the ankles when being diapered but should be gently lifted by the buttocks or supported with pillows. Follow-up appointments for treatment with bisphosphonate can be expected.
32. The nurse is caring for an adolescent with osteosarcoma being admitted to undergo chemotherapy. The adolescent had a right above-the-knee amputation 2 months ago and has been experiencing “phantom limb pain.” Which prescribed medication is appropriate to administer to relieve phantom limb pain?
a. Amitriptyline (Elavil)
b. Hydrocodone (Vicodin)
c. Oxycodone (OxyContin)
d. Alprazolam (Xanax)
Amitriptyline (Elavil) has been used successfully to decrease phantom limb pain. Opioids such as Vicodin or OxyContin would not be prescribed for this pain. A benzodiazepine, Xanax, would not be prescribed for this type of pain.
1. The nurse is caring for an infant with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Which clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to observe? (Select all that apply.)
a. Positive Ortolani click
b. Unequal gluteal folds
c. Negative Babinski sign
d. Trendelenburg sign
e. Telescoping of the affected limb
ANS: A, B
A positive Ortolani test and unequal gluteal folds are clinical manifestations of developmental dysplasia of the hip seen from birth to 2 to 3 months. Unequal gluteal folds, negative Babinski sign, and Trendelenburg sign are signs that appear in older infants and children. Telescoping of the affected limb and lordosis are not clinical manifestations of developmental dysplasia of the hip.
2. A clinic nurse is conducting a staff in-service for other clinic nurses about signs and symptoms of a rhabdomyosarcoma tumor. Which should be included in the teaching session? (Select all that apply.)
a. Bone fractures
b. Abdominal mass
c. Sore throat and ear pain
e. Ecchymosis of conjunctiva
ANS: B, C, E
The initial signs and symptoms of rhabdomyosarcoma tumors are related to the site of the tumor and compression of adjacent organs. Some tumor locations, such as the orbit, manifest early in the course of the illness. Other tumors, such as those of the retroperitoneal area, only produce symptoms when they are relatively large and compress adjacent organs. Unfortunately, many of the signs and symptoms attributable to rhabdomyosarcoma are vague and frequently suggest a common childhood illness, such as “earache” or “runny nose.” An abdominal mass, sore throat and ear pain, and ecchymosis of conjunctiva are signs of a rhabdomyosarcoma tumor. Bone fractures would be seen in osteosarcoma and a headache is a sign of a brain tumor.
3. An adolescent with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is prescribed abatacept (Orencia). Which should the nurse teach the adolescent regarding this medication? (Select all that apply.)
a. Avoid receiving live immunizations while taking the medication.
b. Before beginning this medication, a tuberculin screening test will be done.
c. You will be getting a twice-a-day dose of this medication.
d. This medication is taken orally.
ANS: A, B
Abatacept reduces inflammation by inhibiting T cells and is given intravenously every 4 weeks. Possible side effects of biologics include an increased infection risk. Because of the infection risk, children should be evaluated for tuberculosis exposure before starting these medications. Live vaccines should be avoided while taking these agents.
4. A school-age child is diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The nurse should plan to implement which interventions for this child? (Select all that apply.)
a. Instructions to avoid exposure to sunlight
b. Teaching about body changes associated with SLE
c. Preparation for home schooling
d. Restricted activity
ANS: A, B
Key issues for a child with SLE include therapy compliance; body-image problems associated with rash, hair loss, and steroid therapy; school attendance; vocational activities; social relationships; sexual activity; and pregnancy. Specific instructions for avoiding exposure to the sun and UVB light, such as using sunscreens, wearing sun-resistant clothing, and altering outdoor activities, must be provided with great sensitivity to ensure compliance while minimizing the associated feeling of being different from peers. The child should continue school attendance in order to gain interaction with peers and activity should not be restricted, but promoted.
5. The nurse is caring for a preschool child with a cast applied recently for a fractured tibia. Which assessment findings indicate possible compartment syndrome? (Select all that apply.)
a. Palpable distal pulse
b. Capillary refill to extremity less than 3 seconds
c. Severe pain not relieved by analgesics
d. Tingling of extremity
e. Inability to move extremity
ANS: C, D, E
Indications of compartment syndrome are severe pain not relieved by analgesics, tingling of extremity, and inability to move extremity. A palpable distal pulse and capillary refill to the extremity less than 3 seconds are expected findings.