Flashcards in FA Exotoxins and Endotoxins Deck (20)
What is the source of exotoxin
Certain species of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
What is the source of endotoxin
Outer cell membrane of most gram negative bacteria
Is exotoxin secreted from cell?
Is endotoxin secreted from cell
What is the chemistry of exotoxin?
What is the chemistry of endotoxin?
Lipopolysaccharide (structural part of bacteria; released when lysed)
What is the location of exotoxin genes?
Plasmid or bacteriophage
What is the location of endotoxin genes?
What is the toxicity of exotoxin?
High! (fatal dose on the order of 1 microgram)
What is the toxicity of endotoxin?
Low (fatal dose on the order of hundreds of micrograms)
What are the clinical effects of endotoxin?
What is the mode of action of endotoxin?
Induces TNF and IL-1
What is the antigenicity of exotoxin?
Induces high-titer antibodies called antitoxins
What is the antigenicity of endotoxin?
Are there vaccines against exotoxins?
Toxoids used as vaccines
Are there vaccines against endotoxins?
No toxoids formed and no vaccine available
What is the heat stability of exotoxins?
Destroyed rapidly at 60 degrees Celsius, except staph enterotoxin
What is the heat stability of endotoxin?
Stable at 100 degrees C for 1 hour
What are the typical diseases you associate with exotoxin? (Name three)
Tetanus, botulism, diphtheria