Female Hormonal Control of Reproduction and Infertility Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Female Hormonal Control of Reproduction and Infertility > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Hormonal Control of Reproduction and Infertility Deck (51):
1

what are the 4 phases of the menstrual cycle?

- menstruation

- follicular phase

- ovulatory phase

- luteal phase

2

how long is the menstruation phase meant to last?

4-5 days

3

how long is the follicular phase?

10-16 days

4

how long is the ovulatory phase?

36 hours

5

how long is the luteal phase?

14 days

6

what is the menarche?

date of first period

7

what is menopause?

date of last period

8

which menstrual regulating hormones does the hypothalamus release?

- Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)

- LHRH (luteinising hormone releasing hormone)

9

which menstrual regulating hormones does the anterior pituitary release?

- Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

- Luteinising hormone (LH)

10

which menstrual regulating hormones does the ovary release?

Oestradiol & Progesterone (steroids)

11

what happens during puberty?

- integration of biological signals

- release of hormones

- Breasts and uterus develop

- Pubertal growth ‘spurt’

- Emotional changes

12

where are most oocytes produced?

in utero

13

what is ovulation a result of?

inter-relationships between

- hypothalamus

- anterior pituitary

- Ovaries

14

how is the menstrual cycle regulated?

- gonadotrophin releasing system

- ovarian hormones

15

what is the gonadotrophin releasing system responsible for?

- hypothalamic control LHRH

- LH and FSH; pulsatile release

16

what are the 2 main steroids produced by the ovaries?

- oestrogens (oestradiol)

- progestogens (progesterone)

17

what is the oestrogen responsible for?

- Endometrial proliferation

- Secretion of clear (receptive) cervical mucus

- Cause maturation of vaginal epithelium

- Negative feedback on the hypothalamus / pituitary (follicular phase)

- Positive feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary (ovulatory phase)

18

what are the effects of oestrogen on other systems?

- Maintenance of bone mass (both sexes)

- Effects on CNS (both sexes)

- Effects on vasculature (both sexes)

- Effects on lipid metabolism

- Effects on fat distribution

- Effects on blood clotting (thrombosis)

- Promote insulin secretion

19

what secretes progesterone?

corpus luteum

20

what are the effects of progesterone?

- Causes body temperature to rise

- Causes change to thick (non-receptive) cervical mucus secretion

- Down regulates oestrogen receptors

- Exerts a negative feedback control on the hypothalamus and pituitary

21

what does FSH act on?

acts on primary and secondary follicles

22

what does FSH cause?

follicular growth

23

what does FSH promote?

oestradiol secretion from follicles

24

what causes negative feedback on FSH?

Oestradiol / inhibin causes negative feedback on FSH

25

what initiates ovulation?

By day 12 oestradiol achieves threshold to switch to positive feedback

26

what happens during the luteal phase?

Residual follicular cells luteinise – corpus luteum

27

what happens during late luteal phase?

corpus luteum involutes (invaded by macrophages)

28

what does corpus luteum secrete?

oestradiol and progesterone

29

what happens to estradiol and progesterone levels after the late luteal phase?

Oestradiol and progesterone fall

30

what happens if fertilisation occurs?

- ovum implants
- secretes hCG
- hCG maintains corpus luteum - secretes estradiol and progesterone
- pregnancy established

31

what is precocious puberty?

starts before the age of 8 years

32

what causes precocious puberty?

- LH/FSH driven
-- brain tumour
-- idiopathic (Clock error!)

- oestrogen driven
-- ovarian tumour

33

what can cause delayed puberty?

- 'constitutional’ delay

- hypothalamic disease

- ovarian disease

- pituitary disease

- chronic illness

34

what are some reasons for abnormal ovarian stimulation?

- hypothalamic disease

- pituitary disease

- Polycystic ovary syndrome

35

what are some reasons for abnormal ovarian suppression?

- contraception

- endometriosis

36

what can cause LHRH deficiency?

- Anorexia /bulimia (critical weight!)

- Stress, exams, bereavement, exercise

- Chronic illness, thyroid, anaemia etc,

- Brain tumours

- Cranial irradiation

37

what can be reasons that cause hypopituitarism?

- Sheehan’s syndrome (postpartum haemorrhage)

- Trauma

- Autoimmune

- Idiopathic

- Haemochromatosis

- Secondary tumours

38

what are some diseases associated with pituitary tumours?

- non-secreting

- ACTH (Cushing’s)

- Growth hormone (Acromegaly)

- Prolactin (hyperprolactinaemia)

- Secondary tumours

39

what are the types of ovarian related disease?

- Ovarian dysgenesis

- LH/FSH receptor defects

- Abdominal irradiation (cancer)

- Premature menopause < 40 (autoimmune)

- Menopause

40

what are symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome?

Hirsutism, menstrual irregularity, infertility, acne

41

what is the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome on the hormones?

- high LH : LH/FSH ratio

- Low - normal FSH

- High androgens

42

which gland secretes prolactin?

pituitary

43

what happens if there are high levels of prolactin?

- inhibits ovulation

- Cause irregular /absent menstruation

44

where are prolactin receptors found?

in ovary

45

what regulates prolactin?

Under negative control by hypothalamic dopamine

46

what is hyperprolactinaemia associated with?

pituitary tumour

47

what can correct hyperprolactinaemia?

dopamine agonists
e.g. bromocryptine, cabergoline (very effective)

48

how is LHRH released?

Natural ‘pulsatile’ release

49

what does pulsed administration of LHRH result in?

100ug 90 minutes
promotes LH/FSH release

50

what does continuous administration of LHRH result in?

- Down regulates pituitary LHRH receptors

- Blocks LH/FSH release

51

how is hypothalamic amenorrhoea treated?

- Treated with LHRH ‘pump’

- Also treated LH (hCG) FSH (recombinant)