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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (70):
1

Anthropocene

Different types of environmental problems
Roles of Science in Environmental Policy
How humans impact the environment and ecosystem in multiple ways

2

Public bads(goods)

easily accessed (costly to exclude) many can use (non-rival)
Pollution human health concerns primary

3

Common pool resources

easily accessed (costly to exclude) competing uses (rival)

4

What roles could science play in environmental policy?

Science can't tell us which choices we should take

5

What Science does tell us?

Identifies potential problems in order to prevent harm
Warn of impending disaster
Evaluate effectiveness of potential solutions
Bolster a group's preferred policy undermine other groups' policies

6

What roles does science play in environmental policy?

"best available science"

7

Endangered Species Act

Listing of threatened or endangered species must be based on best scientific and commercial data available

8

Fisheries Act

Conservation and management of commercial fish stocks must be based on best scientific information available

9

Example of "Best Available Science"

Evaluate how well clean air act is working
Publish Data: GDP, vehicle miles traveled, population
Aggregate Emissions: Co2 emissions are down as more industries are becoming more energy efficient

10

When________ is high then ________ will be high

scientific evidence, policy activity

11

Environmental Risk

The likelihood of harm as the result of an action or condition
What level of precaution should society take in addressing or preventing harms

12

Leading cause of death among U.S youth was...

Unintentional accidents

13

Environmental policies rest on

values and beliefs
What the world should be
Involve value judgment, interests, preferences

14

Values

Equity: who gets what
Efficiency: achieving an objective at the lowest cost
Liberty: do what we want
Security: protection tradeoffs how different values can conflict with each other

15

Clean Air Act

National primary ambient air to protect the public heath, allowing an adequate margin of safety

16

Types of Policies

Info. sharing
Use of Markets
Collaborations/Community Based
Command and Control

17

Disclosure Policies

Emergency planning and community right to know Act of 1986 creates the Toxic Release Inventory

18

33/50 Voluntary program (1990s)

Reduce emissions of highly toxic chemicals by 38% by 1992 and 50% by 1995
Participants reduced emissions by 64% in 1995
Non Participants reduced emissions by 40% by 1995
Clear businesses and corporations took steps to pollution and did not want public to know about polluting

19

Market Based Approaches

change market particpants businesses, consumers behavior through prices
Tax environmentally harmful behavior
Gasoline tax

20

Tradable Allowances

A government sets a limit or a cap on how much pollution may be emitted or resources harvested
Allocates a share of the cap to polluters or resource users
Many buy and sell shares with one another
Allowances achieve environmental goals, trading promotes efficiency

21

Define Conflict

Friction
A discomforting difference
An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties.

22

Conflicts can be about

Resources
Boundaries
Values, Principles
Identity

23

Dimensions of human conflict

Procedural
Psychological
Substantive

24

Social conflicts

can occur on multiple scales
collaborative group
social networks
political networks
inter organizational networks

25

Public conflicts

conflicts are usually multi-dimensional
Involve multiple parties
Have a temporal dimension
Rarely static
Respond to system change and behavioral change

26

Conflict can be positive

Bring issues into the open
Dissipate Anger
Build understanding of differences
Raise awareness of other people's needs
Lead to healthy dialogue
Create a focus on common goods

27

Negotiation

Avoid the problem
Leap into the fray
Find a quick fix
Fall into the Solomon Trap

28

Hard Negotiation

Don't have relationships to protect, trying to get the best deal for you

29

Soft Negotiation

Less interested in own needs and focus on other person, neglect own needs, more important for other person

30

Principled Negotiation

Works to optimize or maximize mutual gains either two parties or three parties
minimize losses and risks
Separate people from problem
Goal: to get people on some side working together to solve the problem
Focus on interests, not positions
Use objective selection criteria

31

Collaborative Governance

We face an increased number of complex "wicked" policy problems

32

Failure of Governance

Hollow State
Decline in Trust
Political Polarization & incivility
Leadership Failures

33

What's collaborative governance?

processes and structure of public policy decision making and management engaging people across boundaries

34

Elements of Collaborative Governance...

Serves a public purpose
Addresses complex, often wicked problems

35

What happens when challenges to foster collaborating organizational structures and systems?

leads to fragmented responses

36

Collaborative leadership

leading thru networks
Working through relationships sand connections, strong partnerships needed

37

Collaborative leader attributes

Open minded
Patient
Self-Confident & Risk Oriented
Flexible
Unselfish

38

Global disaster losses

overall losses are increasing
insured losses and losses uninsured are insured and then lost

39

Natural Disaster Characteristics

Low probability
High Impact
Majority of losses come from a small fraction of events

40

Human "caused events

No earthquakes, hurricanes
It depends: Drought
Differential link with climate
Factors impact how policy can deal with disasters

41

Natural disaster impacts

Theory probability of an extreme event
probability depends on event characteristics and climate
Damages depend on event characteristics and human characteristics

42

Impact of Socioeconomic Change

Expected Damages
Global Changes
Current Risks

43

Integrated Assessment Model

An IAM is an interdisciplinary mathematical or data driven tool to aid in decision making

44

Hard linked

IAM Environment and humans and how they impact both

45

Soft linked

IAM Environment to Humans
Applied to a variety of topics
Impact of climate and socioeconomic climate on environment

46

Benefits of linked version of soft and hard IAM

Benefits is that we can fully link the two but downside to link have to collaborate the two issues
Downside of linear don't see how humans impact the environment

47

IAM impact on research

losses determined by both physical and natural elements
"human & natural" elements

48

Impact of climate and socioeconomic change IAM

Emissions Trajectory: climate changes in greenhouse gases how it can impact the future
Climate scenario: Gen. Circulation Models
Tropical Cyclone Behavior: Simulated storm tracks, simulated storms, cyclones assumed to move with the atmospheric changes

49

Empirical framework

what is that functional relationship

50

Damage Function

function that will relate variables to distruction

51

Damage Estimate

Socioeconomic change impact
Rich countries hit hard because a lot in harms way

52

IAM Strengths

answer complex questions
separately calculate impacts from humans and the environment
overall advancement of knowledge
In form policy making

53

IAM limitations

uncertainty
Increasing complexity may lead to divergence across models
Mistakes
Works in progress
Any collaboration issues that exist within disciplines still exist and can be multiplied

54

Risk inherent

risk reduction strategies and actions to decrease the magnitude of losses

55

Responses to risk national activities

Engaging in preparedness and planning
Info to reduct the info asymmetry
Funding and building infrastructure for protection
Funding or incentivizing the adoption of risk reduction strategies by others

56

Subnational Activities

building codes
Stronger infrastructure can be costly
Warning systems and Evacuation policies
Evacuation can be costly

57

Protective Infrastructure

grey infrastructure
green infrastructure

58

Individuals and firms response to risk

location choice
high risk areas have high amenities
physical protection and preparedness

59

Why don't individuals invest more in risk?

Under estimate risk
Free Ride
Costs may be high relative to benefits

60

Premium Pricing
Actuarially Fair
Subsidized

is very important
Priced exactly at expected losses
Priced below expected losses which can encourage risk

61

Adverse selection

High risk individuals may get insurance
Try to collect info on location risk to minimize

62

Moral Hazard

once insured, people may act with more risk because they are covered

63

Unintended Policy consequences

Decreasing risk may increase other risks
Changes private incentives
Better protection of life may increase property damage
People may not take evacuation warnings seriously
May be some very low risk, very high damage events that is too costly to protect it

64

Public risk Info.

NWS has not always warned the public
National prediction center
NWS issue warnings late

65

alternatives play a role

night time tornados more deadly than day time
Non linearity between warning lead time and impact
Credibility of warning system
recency bias

66

Visibility as a source of info

visual confirmation of tornadoes
can confirm storm is approaching
may want to watch storm
others may confirm storm

67

Model Conclusions

Daytime warning are less protective if late
Night time tornado warnings are more protective than day time warnings

68

Factors driving fatalities

pop. density
storm intensity

69

Factors driving adaptation

Income
Pop. Density
Storm Intensity
Underlying Storm Frequency

70

Elasticity

percent change in one variable leading to a percent change in another