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Flashcards in final exam Deck (61):
1

A preconceived negative judgement of a group and its individual members

prejudice

2

what are the sources of prejudice?

social, motivational, cognitive, and categorization

3

unequal status

social prejudice

4

submissive to those in power and aggressive to those below them

authoritarian persoality

5

people want to be liked and accepted by the majority group so they wont resist prejudice

conformity

6

prejudice arises when groups compete for scarce resources

realistic group conflict theory

7

human beings categorize information to simplify the environment

categorization

8

they are all alike and so different from our group

outgroup homogeneity effect

9

the patriarchal expression of sexism, where men express protective, yet restrictive, attitudes toward women

benevolent sexism

10

-after 9/11, 4 in 10 americans said they were prejudice against muslims
-5 in 10 in western europe view muslims as threatening
-Muslims perceived us as greedy and immoral

discrimination due to religion

11

- overweight white women marry less often and make less money
- overweight people are less likely to be hired, get promoted, or compensated

discrimination due to weight

12

-patronizing behavior, condescension
- cause low self esteem
- self profiling prophecy

discrimination due to age

13

"us", a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity

ingroup bias

14

the tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get

just-world phenomenon

15

- gave schoolchildren a set of test
- randomly select bloomers
- told teachers about random bloomers and that IQ would increase sharply
- at the end, bloomers actually showed larger increase in IQ than other children
- caused by warmer attitude, feedback, input and output

Rosenthal's research on the bloomers

16

amygdala and prefrontal cortex

biological bases of aggression

17

fear and aggression, threat detector

amygdala

18

14% less active in murderers, planning, judgement, decision making, regulating body and emotions, empathy and morality

prefrontal cortex

19

- unleashes aggression when people are provoked
- the assailant and or victim have been drinking in 65% of homicides
- 55% for domestic violence
- disinhibits the prefrontal cortex
- reduces self awareness
- focuses on provocation

alcohol and aggression

20

-springs from self destructive impulse
- instinctive

Freud's view on aggression

21

- adaptive rather than self destructive
- instinctive

Lorenz's view on aggression

22

- psychological
- blocking a foal leads to aggression

frustration-aggression theory

23

- albert bandura
- frustration + a cue = aggression
- physically aggressive children tend to have had physically punitive parents
- 30% of abused children, abuse their own children
- children who watched adults behave aggressively toward bobo doll also behaved aggressively (observational learning)

bobo doll study

24

do opposites attract in relationships?

NO!!!!!

25

the tendency for novel stimuli to be lied more after repeated exposure

mere exposure effect

26

couples most similar in attractiveness were most likely to fall more deeply in love

attractiveness

27

people tend to date, marry, and befriend others of similar attractiveness

matching phenomenon

28

when people look at photos, their own spouse becomes less attractive
- Charlie's angels experiment

contrast effect

29

- both grow up in stable two parent household
- are well and similarly educated
- did not marry solely for looks or money
- enjoy a stable income from a good job
- regular church goers
- do not marry too young or too old
- of similar age, faith, and educatio
- spend 3 years together before proposal
- large wedding (social connections)
- have a honeymoon

factors that make divorce less likely

30

helping someone else when there is no benefit to you

altruism

31

we should return help to those who have helped us

reciprocity norm

32

help people who really need it, even if they cant return the favor

social responsibility

33

the more people around, the less help given

bystander effect

34

a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people

stereotypes

35

a negative behavior

discrimination

36

prejudice and discrimination based on a persons racial background

racism

37

- african americans and latinos are over represented in the prisons
- only 13% of US population are african american, yet 35% of prison population is african american
- 33% of inmates are latinos

bias in criminal justice system

38

-subconscious process in which a moral behavior makes people worry less about subsequent immoral behavior
- if I do something positive now its ok to do something negative later

moral licensing

39

a form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalize

modern racism

40

evaluate any minority group and assess it on warmth and competence

stereotype content model

41

1. intergroup contact
2. having two groups working together to achieve a superordinate goal
3. self verification
4. jigsaw classroom
5. intergroup friendships and extended contact

how we decrease prejudice

42

- physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm

aggression

43

a means to another end
- ex: war

instrumental aggression

44

letting out anger

catharsis

45

Does venting help?

venting breeds more hostility-- Bushman

46

What are the dangers of punishment

1. punishment arouses emotion
2. its hard to be perfectly consistent
3. its hard to know the severity of punishment
4. punishment teaches about power
5. punishment motivates concealment

47

Effects of spanking

- spanking at age five leads to higher levels of problem behavior and lower vocab scores around age nine
- children who've been spanked are more likely to use hitting as a means for conflict resolution
- high in anxiety, depression, personality disorder, and alcohol abuse
- less gray matter which is key for self control

48

sexual assault facts

- 1 out of every 6 women
- rape myth: some women welcome sexual assault, no doesnt really mean no

49

most people marry someone from the same neighborhood, job, school, or hometown

proximity

50

How do people decide to breakup?

- desirability of alternatives
- investment
- how happy you are with the relationship

51

What is Sternberg's triangular theory of love?

- intimacy
- commitment
- passion

52

hellen fischer

passionate love
high dopamine levels

53

what is compassionate love?

- intimacy and commitment
- deep affectionate attachment

54

the outcome of what the couple is each putting in is equal to what they are each getting out

equity

55

- emotional intimacy
- revealing intimate information about oneself to the other

self disclosure

56

what does the demander in demand-withdraw do?

the demander nags, criticizes, repeatedly brings up problem, complains

57

what does the withdrawer in demand-withdraw do?

the withdrawer avoids, ignores, refuses to discuss, denies they have a problem, makes excuses

58

- criticism
- contempt
- defensiveness
- stone walling

4 interpersonal styles that lead to marital discord and dissolution

59

what do happy couples do?

- reconcile differences
- communicate
- fight fairly
- have more positive than negative interactions (5 to 1 ratio)

60

when trying to decide if something is an emergency we look around at others who are just as clueless as we are

pluralist ignorance

61

What is Latane and Darley's behavior tree?

- notice the event
- interpret event as emergency
- assume responsibility
- known appropriate form of assistance
- implement the decision