Flaw Definitions #1 Defining flaws Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Flaw Definitions #1 Defining flaws Deck (38):
1

 What is the "tu quoque" (You too) fallacy?

Claiming the argument is flawed by pointing out that the one making the argument is not acting consistently with the claims of the argument

 

 

2

What is the "straw man" fallacy?

To attack a straw man is to attack an argument that was not presented by the opponent.

3

What is an "appeal to pity"?

An arguer attempts to evoke feelings of pity or compassion, when such feelings are not logically relevant to the arguer’s conclusion.

4

What is an "appeal to authority"?

Insisting that a claim is true simply because a valid authority or expert on the issue said it was true, without any other supporting evidence offered

5

What does "r​estricting the options" mean?

It is when someone is asked to choose between two options when there is at least one other option available.

6

What is a "post hoc" fallacy?

This fallacy is committed when it is assumed that because one thing occurred after another, it must have occurred as a result of it

7

What is "equivocation"?

This fallacy is committed when a term is used in two or more different senses within a single argument.

8

What is a "flawed analogy"?

When an analogy is used to prove or disprove an argument, but the analogy is too dissimilar to be effective

9

What is an "ad hominem" attack?

An argument based on feelings of prejudice, rather than facts, reason or logic. Attacking the person making the argument, rather than the argument itself, when the attack on the person is completely irrelevant to the argument the person is making.

10

What is an "appeal to tradition"?

Using historical preferences of the people (tradition), either in general or as specific as the historical preferences of a single individual, as evidence that the historical preference is correct.

11

What is "inconsistency" in an argument? 

Two or more propositions are asserted that cannot both possibly be true.

12

What is "conflation" in an argument? 

Treating two differing things as they were the same.

13

What is a "slippery slope"?

When a relatively insignificant first event is suggested to lead to a more significant event, which in turn leads to a more significant event, and so on.

14

What is a "generalization"?

Drawing a conclusion based on a small sample size, rather than looking at statistics that are much more in line with the typical or average situation.

15

What is an "appeal to ignorance"?

Arguments from ignorance infer that a claim is true from the fact that it is not known to be false.

16

Claiming the argument is flawed by pointing out that the one making the argument is not acting consistently with the claims of the argument.

 

What is the fallacy here? 

 

 

Tu Quoque (You too)

17

To attack a straw man is to attack an argument that was not presented by the opponent.

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Straw Man

18

An arguer attempts to evoke feelings of pity or compassion, when such feelings are not logically relevant to the arguer’s conclusion.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Appeal to pity

19

Insisting that a claim is true simply because a valid authority or expert on the issue said it was true, without any other supporting evidence offered.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Appeal to authority

20

It is when someone is asked to choose between two options when there is at least one other option available.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Restricting the options

21

This fallacy is committed when it is assumed that because one thing occurred after another, it must have occurred as a result of it.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Post hoc fallacy

22

This fallacy is committed when a term is used in two or more different senses within a single argument.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Equivocation

23

When an analogy is used to prove or disprove an argument, but the analogy is too dissimilar to be effective.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Flawed Analogy

24

An argument based on feelings of prejudice, rather than facts, reason or logic. Attacking the person making the argument, rather than the argument itself, when the attack on the person is completely irrelevant to the argument the person is making.

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Ad Hominem

25

Using historical preferences of the people (tradition), either in general or as specific as the historical preferences of a single individual, as evidence that the historical preference is correct.

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Appeal to tradition

26

Two or more propositions are asserted that cannot both possibly be true.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Inconsistency

27

Treating two differing things as they were the same.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Conflation

28

When a relatively insignificant first event is suggested to lead to a more significant event, which in turn leads to a more significant event, and so on.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

b

29

Drawing a conclusion based on a small sample size, rather than looking at statistics that are much more in line with the typical or average situation.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Generalization

30

These arguments infer that a claim is true from the fact that it is not known to be false.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Appeal to ignorance

31

This is when a conclusion or statement does not logically follow from the previous argument or statement.

 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Non-sequitur.

32

What is a "non-sequitur"?

This is when a conclusion or statement does not logically follow from the previous argument or statement.

 

 

33

There is a problem with the examples - they are irrelevant, weak or not supported by reasoning. 

 

What is the name of this type of problem? 

Limited or weak examples. 

34

What are "limited or weak examples"?

This is when there is a problem with the examples - they are irrelevant, weak or not supported by reasoning. 

 

 

35

The person arguing begins with the what they are trying to end with. That is, the reason and the conclusion are basically the same. These arguments assume what they are trying to prove. 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Circular argument  / begging the question. 

36

What is a "circular argument" or "begging the question"

The person arguing begins with the what they are trying to end with. That is, the reason and the conclusion are basically the same. These arguments assume what they are trying to prove. 

 

 

37

Here, the conclusion or judgement is exaggerated. This could be seen through the use of an unsuitable qualifer. 

 

What is the fallacy here? 

Overdrawn conclusion

38

What is an "overdrawn conclusion"?

Here, the conclusion or judgement is exaggerated. This could be throught the use of an unsuitable qualifer.