Fuel Use 1: Insulin action on liver and adipose tissues Flashcards Preview

E: Regulatory Physiology & Pharmacology > Fuel Use 1: Insulin action on liver and adipose tissues > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fuel Use 1: Insulin action on liver and adipose tissues Deck (24):
1

What is the homeostasis normal blood glucose level?

between 3.9-5.9mmols/l

2

How does the body compensate straight after a meal?

Concentration of glucose in the blood increases.

Pancreas produces insulin in the islets of Langerhans.

This increases glucose uptake in cells and increases glycogen synthesis in liver.

Result in the fall of glucose level in the blood

3

Physiological actions of insulin?

Increase glucose uptake into liver.

Increase glycogenesis

Decrease glycogenolysis 

Decrease gluconeogenesis

 

4

Glycogenesis?

Formation of glycogen for storage

5

Glycogenolysis?

Breakdown of glycogen to glucose

6

Glyconeogenesis?

Formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors. 

7

Insulin signalling pathway?

See additional sheet for more details

8

What does GSK3 regulate?

Akt effects?

Regulates hepatic glucogen synthesis

Therefore when AKT inhibits GSK3 there is an increase in glucogen synthesis

Akt inhibits GSK3 by phoshorylating it.

9

FOXO regulates?

Regulates hepatic gluconeogensis 

The formation of glucose from no-carbohyrdate sources such as fat and protein.

AKT stimulates FOXO phosphorylation causing it to be degraded by proteosomes therefore low hepatic gluconeogensis when there is presence of glucose

 

10

What inactivates FOXOs?

IGF-1

11

GLUT4?

Translocation

Mediates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake 

In muscle and adipocyte tissue

12

What happens with the liver produces VLDL? 

Very low-density lipoproteins

Increase lipoprotein lipase enzymatic effects 

Causing glucose to be covered into fatty acids and glycerol.

13

What stimulates the production of VLDL?

Free fatty acids and glycerol from the adipose tissue signal for the production of more VLDL

14

What glucose transporter is used for glucose uptake in adipose tissue?

GLUT4

15

When insulin is present:

What happens to glycogen synthesis?

 

Stimulated

16

When insulin is present:

What happens to glycolysis?

Stimulated

Storing glucose

17

When insulin is present:

What happens to gluconeogenesis?

Suppressed

18

When insulin is present:

What does the futile cycling do?

Suppressed gluconeogenesis 

Stimulates glycolysis

19

What does high level of F26P do to the gluconeogenesis and glycolysis?

Stimulates glycolysis

Inhibits gluconeogenesis

20

What does insulin do to the futile cycling?

Promotes dephosphorylation 

Producing higher levels of F2,6P

 

21

What is the futile cycling?

The conversion of F6P to F2,6P and back in the liver

22

When insulin is present:

What happens to fatty acid synthesis?

Promotion of the fatty acid synthesis

23

What does insulin treatment tend to result in for diabetes?

Weight gain because of the promotion of fatty acid synthesis.

 

24

What is the major glucose transporter in hepatic cells?

GLUT2