What is the role of the Transcription Factor Binding Sites
Control the rate of transcription via transcription factor binding
What is meant by RNA processing?
The initial RNA produced from a gene is known as a “primary transcript” or “Pre- mRNA” or “heterogenous nuclear RNA” ( hn RNA) This primary transcript needs to be processed before it can be used as messenger RNA (mRNA) for protein translation. add pic
Where does RNA processing occur
What are exons?
Segments of the gene which contain sequences that form part of the final RNA are called “exons”
What are Introns?
Introns” are sequences in the gene which are transcribed but are edited out of the final mRNA
What does sequence does an intron start with and end with?
Introns start with the sequence “GU” and end with the sequence “AG”
What is the splice donor site
a donor site which is in the 5' end of the intron where U1 binds
What is the splice acceptor site
acceptor site (3' end of the intron) Where U5 binds
Lable the diagram below add pic
What are U1 U4 U6 U2 and U5?
small Ribonuclear Proteins, or snRNP’s.
Where does U1 bind?
Splice Donor Site
Where does U5 bind?
Splice acceptor site
Draw a splicesome
How is the intron removed
Formation of a lariet structure The “branch” results from a phosphodiester bond between the 5’ phosphate on the “G” at the start of the cleaved intron and the 2’ OH of the branchpoint “A”. The phosphodiester bond between the “G” at the end of the intron and the next exon is then cleaved and the intron removed as a “lariat” structure add pic
What is the order the snRNPs bind?
U1 U2,U4,U6 U5
What happens to the exposed adjacent exon sequences?
They get ligated together
Why is the 5' CAP added to pre-MRNA and a Poly A tail in the 3' end
The cap acts to protect mRNA at the 5’ end and also greatly enhances the translation of mRNA. On mRNAs, the poly(A) tail protects the mRNA molecule from enzymatic degradation in the cytoplasm
What is polyadenylation?
Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly A tail to the pre-mRNA