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Flashcards in GPH Deck (85)
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1

MDG 1

Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty

2

MDG 2

Achieve Universal primary education

3

MDG 3

Promote gender equality and empower women

4

MDG 4

Reduce child mortality

5

MDG 5

Improve Maternal Health

6

MDG 6

Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and other diseases

7

MDG 7

Ensure Enviromental Sustainability

8

MDG 8

Develop a Global Partnership for developement

9

Determinants of Health
Primary and Secondary

-Place of Residence
-Race/Ethnicity
-Occupation
-Gender
-Religion
-Education
-Social Capital
-Socioeconomic position
-PLUS= age, disability, sexual orientations, and other vulnerable groups

PROGRESS PLUS

Secondary:
-costs of health care
-illness often leads to a decrease in earnings
-Disparities of health between economic groups

10

Education and Health: Direct and indirect determinants

Direct:
-Health and education of parents affect the health and education of children
-malnutrition and disease affect cognitive development
-Education contributes to disease prevention

Indirect:
-literacy allows readers to acquire health information
-Female literacy and education are particularly important for family and children

11

Demographic Transition

Low income- high fertility rate, relatively high child and overall mortality rate, relatively low life expectancy, children are high proportion of population

Middle income= intermediate fertility rate, low child mortality rate, intermediate overall mortality rate, intermediate life expectancy

High income= Low fertility rate, very low child mortality rate, relatively low overall mortality rate, relatively high life expectancy, older adults are large proportion of population

12

Epidemiologic Transition

Low income= high burden of disease of poverty (communicable diseases)

Middle income= dual burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases

High income= high burden of non-communicable diseases

13

Disparities: wealth, urban/rural, ethnic,others?

URBAND DWELLERS- tend to enjoy better health status, coverage, and access to services than rural dwellers

RURAL- people tend to have lower incomes, less education, less access to services and weaker political voices

INCOME- large gap in access, coverage, fairness, and benefits between well off and better off

WOMEN- face health concerns related to their diminished place in societies (female infanticide, less food for female children, lower enrollment in school, violence against women)

ETHNICITY- strong association between ethnicity and health status, access and coverage
-linked to strong association between ethnicity and power, education, and income
-Genetic links=tay sachs and sickle cell
-need for cultural competency in providers

FINANCIAL FAIRNESS- -substantial out of pocket costs for poor in low income countries
-in high income countries, insurance and direct medical costs seen as luxury expenditures for the under-insured

14

Emerging diseases, re-emerging and persistent diseasaes, what is impact on global health?

could have a substantial impact of burden of disease they have become drug resistance, or outpace our ability to produce safe and effect drugs. Or pandemic flue could be used for future disease patterns

15

Epidemiology

the distribution and determinants of morbidity, mortality, and disability in populations

16

Culture and Health: what practices are threats to health, what practices are beneficial?

Perception of health- some cultures don't go to a doctor until they are seriously sick. Depends on what they see as normal or not?

Perception of disease- understanding and acceptance of causation of diseases. Some cultures may have very different perceptions of the causes of illness

Health Belief Model
-Likelihood of getting an illness
-Severity of illness if they get it
-Benefits in engaging in behavior that will prevent illness
-Barriers in engaging in preventative behavior

17

Waterborne

The pathogen is in water that is ingested

18

Water-washed

person to person transmission because of a lack of water for hygiene

19

water-based

Transmission via an aquatic intermediate host

20

Water-related insect vector

transmission by insects that breed in water or bite near water

21

What are different types of water-borne pathogens relevant to food and water safety

Enteric Protozoal parasites

Bacterial Enteropathogens

Viral Pathogens

22

Practical ways to address water related problems

improve water source (house connection, stand post, borehole, dug well, and rainwater collection), for sanitation include info on: there options because many people lack the knowledge, costs ( even at low costs the poor may not be able to pay up front costs), construction(may lack skills to help install the toilet), and local laws (forbid low-cost sanitation)

23

What are symptoms of water related problems

diarrhea and other gastrointestinal problems

24

Practical ways to address indoor air pollution

Promote demand for better stoves and fuels to encourage and development of competitive suppliers and market choice, establish national and local policies that encourage the needed changes in stove and fuels, consider subsidies and microcredit for selective interventions to help defray the cost of improvement for the poor, and involve end users in helping to assess needs and design approaches

25

What symptoms come from indoor air pollution

cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, adverse reproduce outcomes, and cancer

26

Practical ways to address outdoor air pollution

introduction of unleaded gasoline, low smoke lubricant for two stroke engines, the banning of two stroke engines, shifting to natural gas to fuel public vehicles, tightening emissions inspections on vehicles, and reducing the burning of garbage

27

What people groups are most affect?

low and middle income countries

28

how can HIV/AIDS be spread

a virus that can be spread through: unprotected sex, mother to child transmission (during birth or through breast feeding), bllod (transfusion, needle, sharing or accidental needle stick) and transplantation of infected organs and tissues

29

General path of spreading HIV/AIDS

sexual or bloodborne

30

How do you control HIV/AIDS

to change your behavior, because the most likely group of people that become infected with HIV/AIDS are the MARPS (most at risk populations)-sex workers, men who have sex with other men, and injecting drug users,