Gram Positive Cocci and Cardiac Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gram Positive Cocci and Cardiac Infections Deck (32)
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1

beta hemolytic strep

- group A: pyogenes
- group B: agalactiae

2

alpha hemolytic strep

- S. pneumoniae
- viridians strep

3

gamma hemolytic strep

- enterococcus

4

s. pyogenes leading cause of

- pharyngitis (strep throat)
- cellulitis (skin and soft tissue)

5

post-streptoccal sequelae of s. pyogenes

- rheumatic fever and subsequent infective endocarditis

6

acute rheumatic fever occurs when

- 2-3 weeks after untreated of inadequately treated strep throat

7

what valves does acute rheumatic fever affect

- mitral/aortic

8

what antibody titers are used in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

- anti-streptolysin O

9

important anti-phagocytic protein in S. pyogenes

- M protein

10

how molecular mimicry of M proteins work

- antibodies bind host antigens and activate immune cells in tissues
- results in inflammation causing tissue damage

11

gram positive organisms that cause infective endocarditis

- viridian's streptococci
- staphylococci
- enterococci

12

gram negative organism that cause infective endocarditis

- Haemophilus
- Actinobacillus
- Cardiobacterium
- Eikenella
- Kingella

- bartonella

13

organisms that most affect native valve infective endocarditis (community acquired)

- S. aureus
- viridans

14

organisms that most affect prosthetic valve infective endocarditis

- S. aureus
- coagulase negative staph

15

organisms that most affect native valve infective endocarditis (nosocomial)

and also IV drug users and those with uncontrolled diabetes

- S. aureus

16

S. aureus and S. pyogenes are found where in the body

- skin

17

viridian's streptococci are found where in the body

- oral cavity

18

enterococci are found where in the body

- GI tract

19

pathogenesis of infective endocarditis

- adherence to injured or inflamed valve surface
- persistence of bacteria
- proliferation
- dissemination

20

between s. viridans and s. aureus, which has the higher virulence

- s. aureus

21

between s. viridans and s. aureus, which can affect normal valves versus previously damaged heart valves

- S. viridans - requires previously damaged valves
- S. aureus - can affect previously normal valves

22

between s. viridans and s. aureus, which causes subacute endocarditis with slow progression

- S. viridans

23

between s. viridans and s. aureus, which cause acute bacterial endocarditis with rapid onset of fever or sepsis

- S. aureus

24

pili (fimbriae) are expressed by

- both gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens

25

which has hyaluronic acid

- group A strep

26

which has polysaccharide

- S. aureus

27

role of protein A

- avoids antibody-mediated opsonophagocytosis
- grabs the antibody by it's Fc portion so it can't signal to phagocytes

28

what stimulates massive polyclonal expansion of T cells resulting in cytokine storm

- superantigen

29

S. aureus superantigen causes

- toxic shock syndrome
- food poisoning

30

S. pyogenes superantigen causes

- scarlet fever