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Flashcards in GRE Psychology Crash Course Deck (21):
1

learning

relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience

2

What are the three theories for learning?

  1. classical conditioning
  2. operant conditioning
  3. cognitive learning

3

classical conditioning

learning that takes place when two stimuli, one conditioned and one unconditioned, are presented together to induce the same response

For example, Pavlov rang a bell when he was going to feed his dogs. The dogs would naturally salivate when food was presented to them, but over time when Pavlov rang his bell his dogs would salivate even without the presence of food.

4

Define acquisition as it relates to classical conditioning.

passively learning to give a known response to a new stimulus

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5

What are the three stages of memory?

  1. sensory memory
  2. short-term memory
  3. long-term memory

6

What is the function of sensory memory?

Sensory memory is a buffer between what is in the world and what we actually take into our minds. This information is held for less than a second before it is lost or transferred to short-term memory.

7

What are common properties of sensory memory?

  • very short duration
  • connects memory to perception
  • includes echoic and iconic memory

8

What kind of memory is used when you say a number over and over (rehearsal) before you dial it into your phone?

Short-term memory is used, and lasts in your brain for roughly 10-30 seconds. Information in short-term memory is lost due to interference.

9

What are the types of rehearsal that allow short-term memories to transfer to long-term memory?

  1. primary, or "maintenance" rehearsal
  2. secondary, or "elaborative" rehearsal

10

What is the difference between maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal?

Maintenance rehearsal is simply repeating the stimulus again and again in order to remember it. While maintenance rehearsal is good for rote memorization, elaborative rehearsal organizes the stimulus into something meaningful so that it is processed deeply and remembered better.

11

What kind of memory is used when remembering your own phone number?

Long-term memory, which can last for days, weeks, years, or life. Very little gets transferred from your short-term to your long-term memory.

12

What are the three measures of memory retention?

  1. recall
  2. recognition
  3. savings (or relearning)

13

What is recognition?

Recognition is the easiest form of memory retention measurement, since all it requires is someone remembering that they have been exposed to the stimulus before.

14

What is recall and what are its two types?

In memory tasks, recall is when a participant must restate something learned previously.

  1. Free recall is when the subject is not cued with anything like a word stem or a subject grouping.
  2. Cued recall is when a specific stimulus must be restated, like a fill-in-the-blank question on an exam.

15

phonemes

basic speech sounds with no meaning

16

morphemes

the smallest carrier of meaning, phonemes combined to create meaning

17

phrase

words grouped together to create a single unit of syntax in a sentence

18

syntax

an element of grammar that dictates the rules for phrase/sentence construction

19

grammar

rules for using a given language, interrelating morphemes and syntax

20

morphology

grammar rules, the understanding of how to group morphemes

21

prosody

the perception of tone inflections, accents, and emotional aspects of language that carry meaning