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Flashcards in Greco-Roman Gods Deck (110):
1

What were the Primordial Deities?

original gods from which all other gods and entities descend

  • e.g. Chaos, Ouranos, Nyx, Gaia, Eros
  • they include the protogenoi, the First Born, who descended from Chaos
  • they are often associated with basic concepts, such as love, or with the underworld or the mystery of fertility

2

Who were the Titans?

powerful deities who ascended during the mythical Golden Age

  • e.g. Oceanus, Tethys, Hyperion, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea, Eos, Helios, Atlas, Prometheus
  • ruled by Kronos and Rhea
  • Kronos was overthrown by his son, Zeus, which led to the rule of the more well-known Olympians
  • fought the Olympians, the younger generation of gods, but were defeated and imprisoned in the depths of the earth (Tartarus)

3

Who were the Olympians?

the Greeks' main deities, who comprise the main gods cast in Homer's epics and later Greek plays

  • e.g. Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hestia (Hestia later gave up her position as an Olympian to Dionysus)
  • lived atop Mt. Olympus
  • twelve of them, though conflicting lists emerge from different historical sources

4

Who were the Chthonic Deities?

gods of the underworld, death, and the bowels of the earth

  • e.g. Hades, Persephone, Tartarus, Charon
  • often appeased by animal sacrifices distinct from the rites of Olympian cults

5

Underworld

realm beneath the earth filled with dead souls

  • includes Tartarus, five rivers, and Cerberus, a three-headed hound
  • Hades' domain

6

Kronos

god of time

  • Roman name: Saturn
  • leader of the Titans
  • son of Gaia and Ouranos (Uranus)
  • overthrew Ouranos and prophesied to be overthrown by his own son, Zeus

7

Zeus

god of sky/thunder

  • Roman name: Jupiter
  • ruler of all Olympian gods
  • married to Hera
  • brother of Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Hestia, and Demeter

8

Poseidon

god of the sea and
earthquakes

  • Roman name: Neptune
  • married to Amphitrite
  • brother of Zeus, Hades, Hera, et al.

9

Hades

god of the underworld

  • Roman name: Pluto
  • brother of Zeus and Poseidon
  • married to Persephone
  • wields the helm of darkness, which grants invisibility

10

Hera

goddess of women and marriage

  • Roman name: Juno
  • Zeus' wife, mother of the gods
  • jealous and bitter towards Zeus' other lovers
  • despised Heracles (Hercules)

11

Athena

 

goddess of wisdom,
peace, and strategy

  • Roman name: Minerva
  • wise daughter of Zeus
  • has an owl, helmet, shield, lance
  • born out of Zeus' forehead

12

Apollo

god of music, light, archery

  • Roman names: Apollo, Phoebus
  • widely worshipped son of Zeus
  • holds a bow and arrow
  • had many male and female lovers

13

Artemis

goddess of hunting, virginity, and the moon

  • Roman name: Diana
  • twin sister of Apollo; also had a bow and arrow
  • took a vow of chastity
  • known for hunting with hounds, stags, a chariot, and nymphs

14

Aphrodite

goddess of love and
beauty

  • Roman name: Venus
  • born of Ouranos' (Uranus') severed genitals, rose from the sea foam
  • married to Hephaestus; had affairs with Ares, Adonis, Hermes

15

Hermes

god of messaging and
travel

  • Roman name: Mercury
  • messenger of the gods
  • wore a winged cap and winged sandals

16

Ares

god of war

  • Roman name: Mars
  • violent god, wore a shield and helmet
  • son of Zeus and Hera

17

Dionysus

god of wine

  • Roman name: Bacchus
  • son of Zeus and Semele
  • effeminite god
  • born of Persephone, killed by Hera, reborn through Semele

18

Helios

sun god

  • Roman name: Sol
  • brother of goddesses Selene (the moon) and Eos (the dawn)
  • rode in a chariot across the sky
  • all-seeing god

19

Hephaestus

god of blacksmithing

  • Roman name: Vulcan
  • blacksmith of the gods, wields a hammer, anvil, and tongs
  • very ugly
  • married to Aphrodite despite his ugliness
  • forged Helios' chariot and Hermes' sandals and cap

20

Hestia

goddess of hearth,
home, family

  • Roman name: Vesta
  • one of the three great goddesses along with Demeter and Hera
  • daughter of Rhea and Kronos

21

original gods from which all other gods and entities descend

  • e.g. Chaos, Ouranos, Nyx, Gaia, Eros
  • they include the protogenoi, the First Born, who descended from Chaos
  • they are often associated with basic concepts, such as love, or with the underworld or the mystery of fertility

The Primordial Deities

22

powerful deities who ascended during the mythical Golden Age

  • e.g. Oceanus, Tethys, Hyperion, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea, Eos, Helios, Atlas, Prometheus
  • ruled by Kronos and Rhea
  • Kronos was overthrown by his son, Zeus, which led to the rule of the more well-known Olympians
  • fought the Olympians, the younger generation of gods, but were defeated and imprisoned in the depths of the earth (Tartarus)

The Titans

23

the Greeks' main deities, who comprise the main gods cast in Homer's epics and later Greek plays

  • e.g. Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hestia
  • lived atop Mt. Olympus
  • twelve of them, though conflicting lists emerge from different historical sources

The Olympians

24

gods of the underworld, death, and the bowels of the earth

  • e.g. Hades, Persephone, Tartarus, Charon
  • often appeased by animal sacrifices distinct from the rites of Olympian cults

The Chthonic Deities

25

realm beneath the earth filled with dead souls

  • includes Tartarus, five rivers, and Cerberus, a three-headed hound
  • Hades' domain

Underworld

26

god of time

  • Roman name: Saturn
  • leader of the Titans
  • son of Gaia and Ouranos (Uranus)
  • overthrew Ouranos and was prophesied to be overthrown by his own son, Zeus

Kronos

27

god of sky/thunder

  • Roman name: Jupiter
  • ruler of all Olympian gods
  • married to Hera
  • brother of Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Hestia, and Demeter

Zeus

28

god of the sea and earthquakes

  • Roman name: Neptune
  • married to Amphitrite
  • brother of Zeus, Hades, Hera, et al.

Poseidon

29

god of the underworld

  • Roman name: Pluto
  • brother of Zeus and Poseidon
  • married to Persephone
  • wields the helm of darkness which grants invisibility

Hades

30

goddess of women and marriage

  • Roman name: Juno
  • Zeus' wife, mother of the gods
  • jealous and bitter towards Zeus' other lovers
  • despised Heracles (Hercules)

Hera

31

goddess of wisdom, peace, and strategy

  • Roman name: Minerva
  • wise daughter of Zeus
  • has an owl, helmet, shield, lance
  • born out of Zeus' forehead

Athena

 

32

god of light, sun, archery

  • Roman names: Apollo, Phoebus
  • widely worshipped son of Zeus
  • holds a bow and arrow
  • had many male and female lovers

Apollo

33

goddess of hunting, virginity, and the moon

  • Roman name: Diana
  • twin sister of Apollo, also had a bow and arrow
  • took a vow of chastity
  • known for hunting with hounds, stags, a chariot, and nymphs

Artemis

34

goddess of love and beauty

  • Roman name: Venus
  • born of Ouranos' (Uranus') severed genitals, rose from the sea foam
  • married to Hephaestus, had affairs with Ares, Adonis, Hermes

Aphrodite

35

god of messaging and traveling

  • Roman name: Mercury
  • messenger of the gods
  • wore a winged cap and winged sandals

Hermes

36

god of war

  • Roman name: Mars
  • violent god, wore a shield and helmet
  • son of Zeus and Hera

Ares

37

god of wine

  • Roman name: Bacchus
  • son of Zeus and Semele
  • feminine god
  • born of Persephone, killed by Hera, reborn through Semele

Dionysus

38

sun god

  • Roman name: Sol
  • brother of goddesses Selene (the moon) and Eos (the dawn)
  • rode in a chariot across the sky
  • all-seeing god

Helios

39

god of blacksmithing

  • Roman name: Vulcan
  • blacksmith of the gods, wields a hammer, anvil, and tongs
  • very ugly
  • married to Aphrodite despite his ugliness
  • forged Helios' chariot and Hermes' sandals and cap

Hephaestus

40

goddess of hearth, home, family

  • Roman name: Vesta
  • one of the three great goddesses along with Demeter and Hera
  • daughter of Rhea and Kronos

Hestia

41

Eros

god of lust, beauty,
and love

  • Roman name: Cupid
  • son of Aphrodite and Ares
  • embodiment of erotic love
  • winged

42

Persephone

goddess of spring and fertility

  • Roman name: Proserpina
  • Queen of the Underworld
  • daughter of Demeter and Zeus
  • abducted by Hades to be his queen; later tricked into being forced to go to the underworld for four months every year

43

Pan

god of shepherds, flocks, and rustic music

  • Roman name: Faunus
  • name comes from the ancient Greek word "pasture"
  • has the legs and horns of a goat
  • son of Zeus and a nymph
  • associated with theatrical criticism

44

Nike

goddess of victory

  • Roman name: Victoria
  • daughter of Pallas and Styx
  • wears wings to show that victory is fleeting

45

Gaia

mother goddess of the earth

  • Roman name: Terra Mater
  • personification of the earth
  • birthed many of the Titans, including Kronos and Rhea

46

Rhea

mother of the gods

  • Roman name: Cybele
  • wife of Kronos and mother of Demeter, Zeus, Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Hestia
  • portrayed seated in a throne with a lion at her feet

47

Demeter

goddess of grain, fertility, and pureness

  • Roman name: Ceres
  • preserver of marriage and law
  • nourisher of crops
  • mother to Persephone

48

Ouranos (Uranus)

god of the sky

  • Roman name: Caelus
  • husband of Gaia, father of the Titans
  • his son, Kronos, overthrew him

49

Cyclopes

three giants -- Arges, Brontes, and Steropes -- each with one eye in his forehead

  • singular form is cyclops
  • primordial sons of Ouranos and Gaia
  • forged symbols such as Poseidon's trident, Zeus' thunderbolts, and Hades' helm of darkness

50

Selene

goddess of the moon

  • Roman name: Luna
  • daughter of Hyperion and Theia
  • traveled across the sky at night after Helios was done with his journey during the day
  • had 50 daughters

51

Oceanus

god of the oceans

  • one of the original Titans
  • held powers over the seas until he was replaced by Poseidon

52

Tethys

goddess of the sea

  • Roman name: Salacia
  • wife and sister of Oceanus
  • birthed thousands of nymphs

53

Hyperion

god of light

  • one of the Titans, Kronos's strongest warrior
  • his children include Helios, Selene, and Eos

54

Eos

goddess of dawn

  • Roman name: Aurora
  • daughter of Hyperion and sister of Helios and Selene
  • responsible for opening the gates of heaven for Helios
  • one of Zeus's many lovers

55

Atlas

Titan who holds the heavens above the earth for eternity

watcher of the sky and moon

56

Chaos

god of existence

  • original state of existence that gave life to all gods
  • Gaia was created from his dark void, which led to the birth of the Titans

57

Charon

minor god of the underworld

  • ferryman who would transfer dead souls along the river Styx
  • demanded a coin for his services; those who could not pay would wander the shore of the river forever

58

Tyche

goddess of fortune and chance

  • Roman name: Fortuna
  • the blind mistress of fortune
  • daughter of Hermes and Aphrodite

59

Hymen

god of marriage ceremonies

  • expected to attend every wedding
  • weddings not attended by Hymen ended in disaster

60

Nyx

goddess of night

  • Roman name: Nox
  • daughter of Chaos
  • mother of Charon

61

god of lust, beauty, and love

  • Roman name: Cupid
  • son of Aphrodite and Ares
  • embodiment of erotic love
  • winged

Eros

62

goddess of spring and fertility

  • Roman name: Persipina
  • Queen of the Underworld
  • daughter of Demeter and Zeus
  • abducted by Hades to be his queen, tricked into being forced to go to the underworld for four months every year

Persephone

63

god of shepherds, flocks, and rustic music

  • Roman name: Faunuas
  • name comes from the ancient Greek word, "pasture"
  • had the legs and horns of a goat
  • son of Zeus and a nymph
  • associated with theatrical criticism

Pan

64

goddess of victory

  • Roman name: Victoria
  • daughter of Pallas and Styx
  • wears wings to show that victory is fleeting

Nike

65

mother goddess of the earth

  • Roman name: Terra Mater
  • personification of the earth
  • birthed many of the Titans, including Kronos and Rhea

Gaia

66

mother of the gods

  • Roman name: Cybele
  • wife of Kronos and mother of Demeter, Zeus, Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Hestia
  • portrayed seated in a throne with lion at her feet

Rhea

67

goddess of grain, fertility, and pureness

  • Roman name: Ceres
  • preserver of marriage and law
  • nourisher of crops
  • mother to Persephone

Demeter

68

god of the sky

  • Roman name: Caelus
  • husband of Gaia, father of the Titans
  • his son, Kronos, overthrew him

Ouranos (Uranus)

69

three giants -- Arges, Brontes, and Steropes -- each with one eye in his forehead

  • singular form is cyclops
  • primordial sons of Ouranos and Gaia
  • forged symbols such as Poseidon's trident, Zeus' thunderbolts, and Hades' helm of darkness

Cyclopes

70

goddess of the moon

  • Roman name: Luna
  • daughter of Hyperion and Theia
  • would travel across the sky at night after Helios was done with his journey during the day
  • had 50 daughters

Selene

71

god of the oceans

  • one of the original Titans
  • held powers over the seas until he was replaced by Poseidon

Oceanus

72

goddess of the sea

  • Roman name: Salacia
  • wife and sister of Oceanus
  • birthed thousands of nymphs

Tethys

73

god of light

  • one of the Titans, Kronos' strongest warrior
  • his children include Helios, Selene, and Eos

Hyperion

74

goddess of dawn

  • Roman name: Aurora
  • daughter of Hyperion and sister of Helios and Selene
  • responsible for opening the gates of heaven for Helios to ride his chariot
  • one of Zeus' many lovers

Eos

75

Titan who holds the heavens above the earth for eternity

watcher of the sky and moon

Atlas

76

god of existence

  • original state of existence that gave life to all gods
  • Gaia was created from his dark void, which led to the birth of the Titans

Chaos

77

minor god of the underworld

  • ferryman who would transfer dead souls along the river Styx
  • demanded a coin for his services; those who could not pay would wander the shore of the river forever

Charon

78

goddess of fortune and chance

  • Roman name: Fortuna
  • the blind mistress of fortune
  • daughter of Hermes and Aphrodite

Tyche

79

 god of marriage ceremonies

  • expected to attend every wedding
  • weddings not attended by this god ended in disaster

Hymen

80

goddess of night

  • Roman name: Nox
  • daughter of Chaos
  • mother of Charon

Nyx

81

Prometheus

Titan who created the first man from clay

  • son of Iapetus and Themis, brother of Atlas
  • his name comes from the greek work, meaning 'forethought'
  • punished by Zeus for stealing his fire and giving it to the mortals

82

Tartarus

god of the lower underworld (also called Tartarus)

imprisoned the cyclopes as well as some of the defeated Titans

83

Triton

messenger of the sea

  • trumpeter of the sea
  • son of Poseidon and Amphitrite
  • a merman, he had the lower body of a fish
  • blew into a conch shell, to either raise or calm the tides

84

Amphitrite

goddess of the sea

  • Roman name: Salacia
  • wife of Poseidon, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys
  • had an affinity for dolphins
  • was oftentimes angry at cheating husband Poseidon

85

Heracles

Greek hero of strength and masculinity

  • Roman name: Hercules
  • demigod, son of Zeus and Alcmene (a mortal)
  • hated by Zeus' wife, Hera
  • completed 12 labors
  • defeated the Hydra and captured several monsters

86

Who were the muses?

guardian spirits of creative powers and artistic disciplines of Ancient Greece

  • e.g. Calliope, Clio, Erato, Euterpe, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia, Urania
  • descended from Zeus and Mnemosyne, titaness who was the personification of memory
  • have been evoked from the Renaissance up to the present day in the Western canon

87

Calliope

muse of epic poetry

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • most assertive and wisest of the muses
  • seen holding a writing tablet

88

Clio

muse of history

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • frequently shown with scrolls or tablets

89

Erato

muse of lyric poetry

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • often shown with a lyre and a wreath of roses

90

Euterpe

muse of music

daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne

91

Melpomene

muse of tragedy

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • often shown holding a traditional tragic mask

92

Polyhymnia

muse of choral poetry

daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne

93

Terpsichore

muse of dance

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • often shown holding a lyre

94

Thalia

muse of comedy

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • often shown holding a comic mask

95

Urania

muse of astronomy and astrology

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • holds a globe
  • prophesies events based on the stars

96

Titan who created the first man from clay

  • son of Iapetus and Themis, brother of Atlas
  • punished by Zeus for stealing his fire and giving it to the mortals

Prometheus

97

god of the lower underworld (also called Tartarus)

used to imprison the cyclopes as well as some of the defeated Titans

Tartarus

98

messenger of the sea

  • trumpeter of the sea
  • son of Poseidon and Amphitrite
  • a merman, lower half of body is a fish
  • blew into a conch shell to raise or calm the tides

Triton

99

goddess of the sea

  • Roman name: Salacia
  • wife of Poseidon, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys
  • had an affinity for dolphins
  • was oftentimes angry at cheating husband Poseidon

Amphitrite

100

Greek hero of strength and masculinity

  • Roman name: Hercules
  • demigod, son of Zeus and Alcmene (a mortal)
  • hated by Zeus' wife, Hera
  • completed 12 labors
  • defeated the Hydra and captured several monsters

Heracles

101

guardian spirits of creative powers and artistic disciplines of Ancient Greece

  • e.g. Calliope, Clio, Erato, Euterpe, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia, Urania
  • descended from Zeus
  • have been evoked from the Renaissance up to the present day in the Western canon

The Muses

102

muse of epic poetry

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • most assertive and wisest of the muses
  • seen holding a writing tablet

Calliope

103

muse of history

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • frequently shown with scrolls or tablets

Clio

104

muse of lyric poetry

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • often shown with a lyre and a wreath of roses

Erato

105

muse of music

daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne

Euterpe

106

muse of tragedy

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • often shown with a traditional tragic mask

Melpomene

107

muse of choral poetry

daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne

Polyhymnia

108

muse of dance

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • often shown holding a lyre

Terpsichore

109

muse of comedy

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • often shown holding a comic mask

Thalia

110

muse of astronomy and astrology

  • daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne
  • holds a globe
  • prophesies events based on the stars

Urania