Green Algae & land plants (Chapter 30) Flashcards Preview

Biology 106 > Green Algae & land plants (Chapter 30) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Green Algae & land plants (Chapter 30) Deck (43):
1

Describe four ecosystem services provided by plants

Build soil
Release oxygen
Hold soils in place and water
Moderate climate

2

. Since approximately 10,000 years ago, humans have been domesticating plants as sources of food. Describe the process of domestication and name the biological principle acting on the plant populations involved.

Active selection

3

Compare green algae and land plants.

Similar: chloroplasts, thylakoids, cell walls sperm and peroxisomes, starch

4

What are the major morphological differences between nonvascular plants, seedless vascular plants and seed plants?

Bryophyte
Ferns do not make seeds
Angiosperms

5

With respect to the evolution of plants as seen in the fossil record, outline the evident themes of the following time frames
475 – 416 mya:

Origin of land plants
Cuticle, spores, sporangia

6

With respect to the evolution of plants as seen in the fossil record, outline the evident themes of the following time frames 416 – 359 mya:

Stomata, vascular tissue, roots, leaves

7

With respect to the evolution of plants as seen in the fossil record, outline the evident themes of the following time frames 359 – 299 mya:

Extensive coal forming swamps
Horsetail abundant

8

With respect to the evolution of plants as seen in the fossil record, outline the evident themes of the following time frames 299 – 145 mya:

Gymnosperms
Wet and dry plants

9

With respect to the evolution of plants as seen in the fossil record, outline the evident themes of the following time frames 145 mya – present

Angiosperms

10

With regard to the phylogeny of green plants
Explain why “green plants” are monophyletic

Single common ancestor
Green algae and land plants

11

b) Explain why “green algae” are paraphyletic

Green algae include some, but not all of the descendants of a single common ancestor

12

c) What group is the closest living relative to land plants?

Charophyceae

13

d) Explain why land plants are monophyletic

Only one transition from freshwater to land

14

e) Explain why nonvascular plants are paraphyletic

Form a glade - a sequence of lineages

15

f) Explain why together, gymnosperms and angiosperms form a monophyletic group

How seeds develop
Naked encapsulated

16

Describe the importance of the evolution of the cuticle and stomata

Waxy prevents water loss
Stomata gas exchange

17

Describe the importance of the evolution of upright growth and vascular tissue.

Keep plant moist
Keeps it from falling over

18

Describe the evolutionary sequence observed in water-conducting cells in land plants (see figure 30.9).

1 simple water conducting cells
2 vascular
3 tracheids secondary cell wall with lignin
4 vessel elements

19

Explain how the evolution of the embryo, and later, the seed, helped plants reproduce on land.

Protection from drying out

20

Explain how the evolution of heterospory, and later, pollen, helped plants reproduce on land.

Production of two different types of spores
Male and female
Spooky tea to sporopollen makes a pollen grain
Go to new locations to disperse

21

Explain how the evolution of cones, and later, flowers, helped plants reproduce on land.

Seeds in embryo

22

Alternation of generations appears to have evolved independently in several lineages of eukaryotes including land plants. Draw a diagram representing alternation of generations in land plants (see figure 30.14).

1

23

Below is the gametophyte-dominated life cycle of a moss. Label meiosis, spore, gametophyte (n), archegonia, antheridia, egg, sperm, fertilization, zygote, sporophyte (2n).

1

24

Outline the five key events in the alternation of generations.

Meiosis
Mitosis
Sperm from antheridian, female archegonia
Fertilize = zygote
Mitosis

25

Compare and contrast zygotes and spores

Similar: single called divide by mitosis to become multicellular

Zygotes fusion of sperm and egg - produces sporophytes

Spores: not formed by fusion of cells, produces gametophytes, inside of gametangia

26

Label this sporophyte-dominated life cycle of a fern. Label meiosis, spore, gametophyte (n), archegonia, antheridia, egg, sperm, fertilization, zygote, sporophyte (2n).

1

27

Label this heterosporous life cycle of a gymnosperm. Label sporophyte, microsporangiate cone, microspore, male gametophyte, megasporangiate cone, megaspore, female gametophyte, eggs, fertilization, embryo, seed

1

28

Label this heterosporous life cycle of an angiosperm. Label sporophyte, anther, microspore, male gametophyte, megaspore, ovary, megaspore, female gametophyte, egg, fertilization, embryo, seed.

1

29

Explain the directed-pollination hypothesis and provide examples of characteristics that have coevolved with animal pollinators

Natural selection favorited flower colors shapes scents and becomes attractive to specific pollinators
Mutually beneficial: pollinator gets food, plant gets sex

30

Green Algae
List the traits common to all green algae:

Double membrane
Chlorophyll a and b
Starch storage
Cell wall
Cellulose

31

Non-vascular Plants (liverworts, bryophytes, hornworts)
Traits common to most non-vascular plants are:

Low sprawling habits
Bryophytes
Rhizoids - anchored to rocks, soil tree bark
Have flagellated sperm to swim to eggs

32

Seedless Vascular Plants
Traits common to all seedless vascular plants:

1

33

Traits of the four major groups of seedless vascular plants:
1) Lycophyta

1

34

Traits of the four major groups of seedless vascular plants 2) Psilophyta

1

35

Traits of the four major groups of seedless vascular plants 3) Equisetophyta

1

36

Traits of the four major groups of seedless vascular plants4) Pteridophyta

1

37

Seeded Vascular Plants
Traits common to all seeded vascular plants:

1

38

Traits of the six major groups of seeded vascular plants:
1) Cycadophyta

1

39

Traits of the six major groups of seeded vascular plants: 2) Ginkgophyta

0

40

Traits of the six major groups of seeded vascular plants: 3) Redwood group

11

41

Traits of the six major groups of seeded vascular plants: 4) Pinophyta

1

42

Traits of the six major groups of seeded vascular plants: 5) Gnetophyta

1

43

Traits of the six major groups of seeded vascular plants: 6) Anthophyta

1