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Flashcards in Hajj Deck (51):
1

Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam
What are they?


1. Shahadah: Muslim profession of faith
2. Salat: Prayer 5 times a day
3. Zakat: Giving of alms
4. Sawm: Fasting during the month of Ramadan
Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca during specific month

2

what IS CENTRAL TO PRAYER AND PILGRIMAGE

MECCA IS CENTRAL TO PRAYER AND PILGRIMAGE

3

first direction to where did muslim pray and when and why change

jeruselum to mecca

4

2 types of pilgrimage

umra and hajj

5

When hajj practiced?

Hajj changes to 10 days before every year as Islam follows a lunar calendar. The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th (or in some cases 13th[10]) of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date of Hajj changes from year to year. Ihram is the name given to the special spiritual state in which pilgrims wear two white sheets of seamless cloth and abstain from certain actions.[7][11][12]

6

time umra

happen at any time of year but usually done on 1st day hajj

7

rituals of umrah

The pilgrim performs a series of ritual acts symbolic of the lives of Ibrahim (Abraham) and his second wife Hajar, and of solidarity with Muslims worldwide. These acts of faith are:

Perform a tawaf "طواف", which consists of circling the Kaaba seven times in an anticlockwise direction. Men are encouraged to do this three times at a hurried pace, followed by four times, more closely, at a leisurely pace.[1]
Perform a sa'i "سعي", which means rapidly walking seven times back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah. This is a re-enactment of Hajar's frantic search for water. The baby Ishmael cried and hit the ground with his foot (some versions of the story say that an angel scraped his foot or the tip of his wing along the ground), and water miraculously sprang forth. This source of water is today called the Well of Zamzam.
Perform a halq or taqsir, meaning a cutting of the hair. A taqsir is a partial shortening of the hair, whereas a halq is a complete shave of the head, except for women, as they cut a little amount of hair instead.
These rituals complete the Umrah, and the pilgrim can choose to go out of ihram. Although not a part of the ritual, most pilgrims drink water from the Well of Zamzam. Various sects of Islam perform these rituals with slightly different methods.

The peak times of pilgrimage are the days before, during and after the Hajj and during the last ten days of Ramadan.

8

ihram

Ihram - Ihram clothing (Ahram clothing) includes men's and women's garments worn by Muslim people during the Ihram pilgrimage (Hajj) and or (umrah). The main objective is to avoid attracting attention. Men's garments often consist of two white un-hemmed sheets (usually towelling material) and are universal in appearance.

9

story short version

sarah couldn't give abraham a child so said he could have one with the handmaiden hagar. She had son called ismael. sarah intensely jealous and told abraham to send them away, he took them to desert and left food and water. soon finished. they were v thirsty. Thus, Hagar ran between the Al-Safa and Al-Marwah hills in search of water for her son. After the seventh run between the two hills, an angel[2] appeared before her. He helped her and told her that God had heard Ishmael's crying and would provide them with water. At that point, God caused a spring to burst forth from the ground, where Ishmael's heel lay, and thereafter Mecca became known for its excellence and abundance of water. The well was subsequently named Zamzam, and become a holy source of water.

10

umrah what you do

Change into ihram at miqat and say talbiya
Ka’ba: tawaf - literally circling) is one of the Islamic rituals of pilgrimage. During the Hajj and Umrah, Muslims are to circumambulate the Kaaba (most sacred site in Islam) seven times, in a counterclockwise direction.
Walk between Safa and Marwa seven times (sa’i)
Drink from the zam zam well

11

hajj day 1

First day of Hajj: 8th Dhu al-Hijjah[edit]

Tents at Mina
On the 8th Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims are reminded of their duties. They again don the ihram garments and confirm their intention to make the pilgrimage. The prohibitions of ihram start now.

Mina[edit]

Pilgrims wearing ihram on the plains of Arafat on the day of Hajj

Mount Arafat during Hajj
After the morning prayer on the 8th of Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims proceed to Mina where they spend the whole day and offer noon, afternoon, evening, and night prayers.[46] The next morning after morning prayer, they leave Mina for Arafat.

12

hajj day 2

Second day: 9th Dhu al-Hijjah[edit]
Arafat[edit]
Main article: Day of Arafah
On 9th Dhu al-Hijjah before noon, pilgrims arrive at Arafat, a barren and plain land some 20 kilometers east of Mecca,[47] where they stand in contemplative vigil: they offer supplications, repent on and atone for their past sins, and seek mercy of God, and listen to sermon from the Islamic scholars who deliver it from near Jabal al-Rahmah (The Mount of Mercy)[46] from where Muhammad is said to have delivered his last sermon. Lasting from noon through sunset,[47] this is known as 'standing before God' (wuquf), one of the most significant rites of Hajj.[7] At Masjid al-Namirah, pilgrims offer noon and afternoon prayers together at noon time.[46] A pilgrim's Hajj is considered invalid if they do not spend the afternoon on Arafat.[14][47]

Muzdalifah[edit]

A scenery of Muzdalifa
Pilgrims must leave Arafat for Muzdalifah after sunset without praying maghrib (evening) prayer at Arafat.[48] Muzdalifah is an area between Arafat and Mina. Upon reaching there, pilgrims perform Maghrib and Isha prayer jointly, spend the night praying and sleeping on the ground with open sky, and gather pebbles for the next day's ritual of the stoning of the Devil (Shaitan).[49]

13

hajj day 3

Third day: 10th Dhu al-Hijjah[edit]
After returning from Muzdalifah, the Pilgrims spend the night at Mina.

Ramy al-Jamarat[edit]
Main article: Stoning of the Devil

Pilgrims performing Stoning of the devil ceremony at 2006 Hajj
Back at Mina, the pilgrims perform symbolic stoning of the devil (Ramy al-Jamarat) by throwing seven stones at only the largest of the three pillars, known as Jamrat al-Aqabah from sunrise to sunset.[14][50] The remaining two pillars (jamarah) are not stoned on this day.[51] These pillars are said to represent Satan.[52] Pilgrims climb ramps to the multi-levelled Jamaraat Bridge, from which they can throw their pebbles at the jamarat. Because of safety reasons, in 2004 the pillars were replaced by long walls, with catch basins below to collect the pebbles.[53][54]

Animal sacrifice[edit]
After the casting of stones, animals are slaughtered to commemorate the story of Abraham and Ishmael. Traditionally the pilgrims slaughtered the animal themselves, or oversaw the slaughtering. Today many pilgrims buy a sacrifice voucher in Mecca before the greater Hajj begins, which allows an animal to be slaughtered in their name on the 10th, without the pilgrim being physically present. Modern abattoirs complete the processing of the meat, which is then sent as charity to poor people around the world.[14][45] At the same time as the sacrifices occur at Mecca, Muslims worldwide perform similar sacrifices, in a three-day global festival called Eid al-Adha.[15]

Hair removal[edit]
After sacrificing an animal, another important rite of Hajj is shaving head or trimming hair (known as Halak). All male pilgrims shave their head or trim their hair on the day of Eid al Adha and women pilgrims cut the tips of their hair.[55][56][57]

Tawaf Al-Ifaadah[edit]

Pilgrims performing Tawaf around the Kaaba
On the same or the following day, the pilgrims re-visit the Masjid al-Haram mosque in Mecca for another tawaf, known as Tawaf al-Ifadah, an essential part of Hajj.[56] It symbolizes being in a hurry to respond to God and show love for Him, an obligatory part of the Hajj. The night of the 10th is spent back at Mina.

14

hajj day 4

Fourth day: 11th Dhu al-Hijjah[edit]
Starting from noon to sunset on the 11 Dhu al-Hijjah (and again the following day), the pilgrims again throw seven pebbles at each of the three pillars in Mina. This is commonly known as the "Stoning of the Devil".[50]

15

hajj day 5

Fifth day: 12th Dhu al-Hijjah[edit]
On 12 Dhu al-Hijjah, the same process of stoning of the pillars as of 11 Dhu al-Hijjah takes place.[50] Pilgrims may leave Mina for Mecca before sunset on the 12th.

16

last day hajj

Last day at Mina: 13th Dhu al-Hijjah[edit]
If unable to leave on the 12th before sunset or opt to stay at free will, they must perform the stoning ritual again on the 13th before returning to Mecca.[50]

Tawaf al-Wadaa[edit]
Finally, before leaving Mecca, pilgrims perform a farewell tawaf called the Tawaf al-Wadaa. 'Wadaa' means 'to bid farewell'. The pilgrims circle the Kaaba seven times counter-clockwise, and if they can, attempt to touch or kiss the Kaaba.[14]

Journey to Medina[edit]
Though not a part of Hajj, pilgrims may choose to travel to the city of Medina and the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet), which contains Muhammad's tomb.[45] The Quba Mosque and Masjid al-Qiblatayn are also usually visited.[58]

17

how would pilgrims generally travel originally on arabian route

caravan. The 900 mile road from Kufa to Mecca was one of the earliest routes created specifically for pilgrims. The pilgrim routes generally followed the ancient trade routes across Arabia. The Darb Zubayda (Zubayda’s Road) is the most significant of the early routes and was extensively developed during the era of the Abbasid caliphs (750–1258), whose capital was Baghdad.

18

how would pilgrims travel on the indian ocean route

Dhow. The Journey from India to Jedda was a very hazardous one. When Indian ships approached the coast of the Arabian Sea they encountered violent waves. Piracy was also one of the major hazards mentioned by Muslim sources. Therefore the return of pilgrims is an occasion of joyous celebration for the completion of a spiritual experience and also for safe arrival.

19

african route

Cairo was a hub for pilgrims travelling to Mecca from North and West Africa. Pilgrims would travel together in great caravans for safety. The Hajj route from Cairo to Mecca rose to prominence in the Mamluk era (1250–1517). The Mamluk sultans ruled from Cairo and had control over the Hijaz and the holy cities. In addition to the pilgrims from Egypt, the convoys also included the Hajj caravans from North and West Africa.

20

ottoman route

During the rule of the Ottoman sultans, the ceremonies surrounding the departure of the Hajj caravans from Istanbul were at their most spectacular. The main hub for this route was Damascus drawing pilgrims from across the Ottoman Empire and beyond.

Following the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517, the Ottomans took charge of the Hajj. They took control of the Hijaz and the holy cities and each year they spent vast sums on protecting the caravans, maintaining the routes and taking care of the holy sanctuaries at Mecca and Medina.

21

hijaz

In 1900, the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II (reigned 1876–1909) put out an appeal to Muslims of the world to support the building of a railway connecting Damascus to the holy cities of Medina and Mecca. Built by public subscription and with the advice of German engineers, the line from Damascus reached Medina in 1908. Pilgrims who embarked from Haydarpaşa station in Istanbul could now travel all the way to Medina by rail. This reduced the journey from almost forty days to five. Thousands of pilgrims from Russia, Central Asia, Iran and Iraq also converged on Damascus to take the train. The railway never reached Mecca and during the Arab Revolt (1916–18) against the Ottomans during the First World War, parts of the railway were blown up by Lawrence of Arabia and his Arab allies. Some sections of the railway in Jordan are still in use today.

Theoretically increased access from 40 days to 5. Damascus became busy. Also decreased access from some of the poorest pilgrims. Some would go with not enough money and would get alms to help support journey, Railroad meant more money needed up front, less access to people who had money to help.

22

surre

The Ottoman Hajj caravan was known as the sürre, meaning "the imperial purse". Great ceremonies took place before the sultan in Topkapi Palace in the Ottoman capital Istanbul on the day of its departure. Pilgrims from Istanbul travelled across Turkey to Damascus, the official starting point of the Ottoman Hajj, where they were joined by pilgrims from across the empire and further east from Central Asia. The route from Damascus took 34 days. Along the way a network of forts protected pilgrims’ water supplies.

23

mahmal

One of the most interesting objects belonging to the history of the Hajj is the mahmal. The mahmal was the ceremonial palanquin carried on a camel which was the centrepiece of the pilgrim caravan from Cairo to Mecca. It was made of embroidered fabrics and symbolized the authority of the sultan. The tradition of the mahmal began in the reign of the Mamluk Sultan Baybars (ruled 1260-77). Before departing on Hajj, the mahmal was paraded in the streets of Cairo with great pomp and ceremony and watched by thousands. It did not remain in Mecca but was brought back to Cairo by the returning caravan. After the collapse of the Mamluk Empire in 1517, the tradition of the mahmal was continued by the Ottoman sultans. At different times mahmals were also sent from Damascus and Yemen. The practice of sending the mahmal from Egypt to Mecca continued until 1926 after which the practice was discontinued. It continued, however, to be paraded in Cairo until 1952.

24

hajj by dhow or steamship

The port of Jedda is the gateway to Mecca for pilgrims from South and Southeast Asia and Africa. They arrived in their thousands on dhows and steamships. Jedda has been the main port for Mecca since the mid-seventh century. Thousands of pilgrims arrived here from ports across the Indian Ocean, such as Bombay and Singapore, and from as far as China. Pilgrims also sailed to Jedda from southern Arabia and the Gulf and the main African ports on the Red Sea – Qusair, Suakin and Port Sudan. In Jedda the pilgrims were housed in hostels owned by religious foundations. They then set off eastwards to Mecca, a 40-mile journey by camel or on foot which took about two days. Today, Jedda airport is the main arrival point for pilgrims worldwide.

25

thomas cook and the hajj

This selection of objects comes from the Thomas Cook Indian Hajj archives. The pilgrim report is by one of the agents sent by Thomas Cook to Jedda to advise on how shipping and transportation arrangements could be improved for Indian pilgrims. On learning of his father’s appointment to the post of agent, Thomas Cook’s son commented: ‘I know this business is surrounded with more difficulties and prejudices than anything I have hitherto undertaken.’ The pilgrim booklet gives a detailed description of Thomas Cook’s involvement with the Hajj. Thomas Cook tickets were issued to the thousands of pilgrims who travelled from India to the Hijaz for Hajj.

26

european colonial powers and the hajj india

they had to facilitate the travel of their citizens on hajj. official provider was thomas cook.

27

shifting oversight hajj

632-61: Rightly-guided caliphs
661-750: Umayyad rule from Damascus
750-1258: Abbasid rule, primarily from Baghdad
1169-1252: Ayyubid rule from Cairo (Salah al-Din)
1250-1517: Mamluk rule from Cairo
1517-1803 + 1814-1916: Ottoman rule from Istanbul
[1803 - 1812/13: first Saudi State]
1916-24: Arab revolt by Sharif Husayn (local ruler of Mecca)
1924-present: Hijaz incorporated into the Saudi state

28

sykes picot and hajj

· Arabia in 1900. Sykes picot plan 1916 split. Levant changed in 1926 with Saudi kingdom created.
Control of mecca and medina is important as it brings a lot of prestige to the states ruling over mecca and medina. Significant responsibility. Ottoman sending caravans, British sending people on steamships. Protection of caravans required

29

conflicts

· 1500s conflicts with Portuguese over the red sea and Indian ocean stopped many pilgrims to travel. Then there were Bedouin attacks a spate of in the 1700s.. 1757 20000 people died from Bedouin attacks, heatstroke. Rulers had to protect caravans and when pilgrims in mecca, rulers had to keep them safe.

30

dangers of hajj

· 1500s conflicts with Portuguese over the red sea and Indian ocean stopped many pilgrims to travel. Then there were Bedouin attacks a spate of in the 1700s.. 1757 20000 people died from Bedouin attacks, heatstroke. Rulers had to protect caravans and when pilgrims in mecca, rulers had to keep them safe.
· The spread of disease happened. And more a more people meant more were easier to arrive alive but increased disease. Cholera 1832. 1865, 15000 died on hajj from cholera.
· Stampedes.
· States running hajj also has a responsibility of building work
· Saudi cater for in creased amount of Muslims doing hajj.
·

31

unity and difference in the hajj

· on the one hand hajj can really further unity. Unity with Muslims from the past and from around the world. During hajj all supposed to be equal no matter what.
Diversity – new developments. New building not accessible for average Muslims. Also ideological difference. Type of Islam by Saudi is not looked kindle on certain sorts of practices Inc.

32

HISTORIOGRAPHY To what extent does the hajj emphasize Muslim unity, diversity, or both? 16C

· ne of the most interesting objects belonging to the history of the Hajj is the mahmal. The mahmal was the ceremonial palanquin carried on a camel which was the centrepiece of the pilgrim caravan from Cairo to Mecca. It was made of embroidered fabrics and symbolized the authority of the sultan. The tradition of the mahmal began in the reign of the Mamluk Sultan Baybars (ruled 1260-77). Before departing on Hajj, the mahmal was paraded in the streets of Cairo with great pomp and ceremony and watched by thousands. It did not remain in Mecca but was brought back to Cairo by the returning caravan. After the collapse of the Mamluk Empire in 1517, the tradition of the mahmal was continued by the Ottoman sultans. At different times mahmals were also sent from Damascus and Yemen. The practice of sending the mahmal from Egypt to Mecca continued until 1926 after which the practice was discontinued. It continued, however, to be paraded in Cairo until 1952.
· Bedouin to pck p lost property etc and help stragglers but if not paid by the amir they would attack hajj on return journey for good purchased in mecca?
· Amir of the hajj held power of life and death
· An official to deal with estates of pilgrims who have died
· Hajj was so dangerous that some religious scholars in the Sudan and elsewhere argued that it was not compulsory
· Before 1800 (west Africa?) Hajj was preserved for religious scholars
· Economy of mecca was reliant on the pilgrimahe
· Mecca and Medina famous as centres of religious scholarship for many pilgrims
· If a religious scholar wanted to publicize his writings, he sent them to medoina
· Fair? Became a market? P165 Mecca.
 

33

HISTORIOGRAPHY To what extent does the hajj emphasize Muslim unity, diversity, or both? 16-18C

16-18 c
· Mecca – indian and ethipopian goods. Silk, cotton, spices, incence, wax
· Europeans only became aware of the importance of the Hajj in the 16th C
· Portugese levied a tax to pilgrims travelling over the red sea
· Mamluks used medina and mecca as a place to exile so did ottomans but not so much
· Suleyman the Magnificent commissioned architect Sinan to build the suleymaniyya mosque complex in Damascus – it was supposed to be a place for pilgrims to assemble. There was a soup kitchen there and a place sed aside fe pilgrims tents
· Ottoman sultan selim I was supposed to pay off the Bedouin tribes and give alms to the poor
· Pasha of Damascus was usually the amir of the hajj from 1708. He was to tour Syrian sub provinces in order to raise money for the pilgrimage
· Security was less good in mecca in 17c as devshirme was infiltrated by civilian p180
Bedouin attack 1757 due to economic desperation from 2 yrs of droughts

34

HISTORIOGRAPHY To what extent does the hajj emphasize Muslim unity, diversity, or both? 19C

· European ecplorers take an interest and book published p189
· Dutch had rebels wanting a more strict islam brought back to western Sumatra here they ruled. This was learned by religious teachings in mecca. Resulted in dutch issuing permits and requiring they check nto the consulates on arrival and departure
· British government enforced minimum standards of accommodation on ships for the indian govt. India did not want to do this thinking that the pilgrims would be resened by muslims feeling like they were being controlled by the govt. 1880 finally saw regulations and control – Thomas Cook briefly appointed as the sole travel agent for the journey
· 1870s dutch started to compete with british for steamship travel of pilgrims
· From 1830s many Indians brought cholera with them to mecca. Spread of it and 15000 out of 90000 died 1865 p200
· India office did appoint soldier to oversee conditions of the hajj and brought in the hajj passport
· Hajj decline 19c. Ottoman spending less on hajj. Most travelled by sea and overland hajj declined. Overland hajj from Damascus declined from tebs of thousand to 800 late 1870s.

35

HISTORIOGRAPHY To what extent does the hajj emphasize Muslim unity, diversity, or both? 20C

20th Century
· 1927 hajj from Karachi pilgrims had to make wills before boarding the ship
· Hijaz railway transformed hajj much like the steamship
· Syrian economy was losing out ass many travelled by sea
· Sharif husayn insisted on pilgrims being quarantined twice
· When Sau’di took the hijaz conditions improved for pilgrims. He forced guides to lower prices
· Increased security p218
· Before discovery of oil, pilgrims were only source of income in Saudi so there was an entry tax levied. However due to glabal depression, pilgrims remained low. 40000 1931 and 20500 1934
· When oil struck, facilities improved for pilgrims and tax lifted
·  
 

36

BEAHVIOUR HAJJ

Wear seamless white, stop shaving, don’t comb hair, don’t cut nails, no sex, no perfume, nothing more than wear sandals, do not cover head.

37

unity ideological

saudi does not look kindly on certain practises including sufi and shiite. bringing all raises tensions.

38

unity poor/rich

alms giving. started well with the surre but changed with the advent of the hijab railway. still the sacrifice is good for poor as slaughterhouses process meat and give as charity

39

poor helped by rich saudi mufti

According to the Saudi Gazette, Al-Asheikh said wealthy Muslims should either spend the money they would have used for Hajj on the poor and needy, or to help another Muslim perform the pilgrimage.

40

exploitation of hajj

Local businesses in Mecca have been accused of hiking their prices and Suhail Khadim, a travel agent at Birmingham-based Al-Hidaayah told the Jerusalem Post that like all holidays, people can pay for luxury.

Five-star Hajj packages can include private travel, gourmet food, personal guides and luxury hotels, with trips costing thousands.

"Most people who travel with us are professionals - doctors, lawyers - so they can afford the fare. Smaller local agencies provide cheaper packages for as little as £2,000, but then you are located further from the Al-Haram mosque, and may have to share a room with 10 people."

41

essence of hajj

The essence of Hajj is to take away those social and economic differences of human beings, to simplify it and make it the same

42

how do families get around the hajj if can't afford

as per hans kung often a whole village will save so that at least one of them can join inthe pilgrimage

43

hans kung political historiography

initially caliph of baghdad responsible, then caliph of damascus, from 10c the fatimid caliph, then sultans of cairo,ottoman sultans then and now saudi arabia kings

44

differences between poor and rich hajj

But developments in the last few decades have caused many to question whether the spirit of equality, so central to the historic and symbolic meaning of the hajj, has been lost. When I performed hajj in 2011, I was profoundly unsettled by the glaring inequalities that were present at all stages of the pilgrimage. Our hajj group, composed of expatriates living in Jeddah, benefited from the luxury of air-conditioned mega-tents, buffet meals, and modern bathroom and shower facilities. Meanwhile, outside the doorstep of our tents, the plains of Mina had transformed into a virtual slum city. Pilgrims slept on salvaged pieces of cardboard and loitered outside of tents in the hopes of securing leftover scraps of food from the dinners being served inside. A foul stench rose up from the communal bathrooms, where pilgrims lined up by the hundreds for their turn. While our group enjoyed the use of the brand-new metro system to shuttle us between the ritual sites, others had to the make hours-long trek on foot beneath the scorching sun.

45

affordability hajj

the modern-day hajj has become a multi-billion dollar industry. The perimeter of the Grand Mosque in Mecca is now dominated by the Abraj Al-Bait skyscrapers, boasting 5-star hotels, luxury shopping malls and buffet restaurants. A hotel room in one of the towers overlooking the Ka’abah can go for upwards of $700 a night during hajj season, and hajj tour operators run a lucrative business, selling luxury packages offering the ultimate levels of comfort, access to amenities and proximity to all the pilgrimage sites. The cost of going on hajj for international pilgrims has risen exponentially in recent years, making the pilgrimage unaffordable for the vast majority of the world’s Muslims. This has led many to conclude that the holy city has become, as a 2011 article from the Independent put it, a “Mecca for the rich.” Pilgrims who cannot afford the luxury packages are forced to accept sub-standard accommodation miles away from the pilgrimage sites, or attempt the risky undertaking of going on the pilgrimage illegally.

46

political ramifications hajj

Hajj visas are allocated according to a quota system which varies by country, with the lion’s share of visas going to Gulf nationals. The Saudi government has long used the allocation of visas as a political weapon in its relations with other Muslim countries, with the effect that the hajj has served as a platform where geopolitical rivalries are played out. For example, the Saudi government imposed strict restrictions on the number of pilgrims coming from Iran in the wake of the 1979 Revolution, fearing the spread of political Shi’ism, and again in the 1990s in retaliation for Iran’s suggestion that the administration of the hajj should be placed under the shared control of all Muslim countries. Within pilgrim-sending countries, the distribution of limited spaces within the national quota is subject to the exigencies of internal politics. A greater share of the slots available is awarded to key constituencies as a way of buying political support while politicians and their families are permitted to bypass the lottery system altogether. A country’s hajj delegation therefore becomes a microcosm of existing societal stratifications and power dynamics. This year, quotas will be even more restrictive due to ongoing construction which has reduced the capacity of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, which will only raise the stakes in the game.

47

racism hajj

In 2010, the government imposed a blanket ban on Moroccan women from performing the lesser pilgrimage (known as ’umrah) based on weakly substantiated allegations that Moroccan women were using ’umrah visas as a conduit for entering the Kingdom to work as prostitutes. Last year, in a selective application of the law requiring female pilgrims to travel with a male companion, hundreds of Nigerian women en route to the hajj were detained in humiliating conditions at the airport in Jeddah before being deported en masse. These incidents reflect deep-seated fears and stereotypes of African women as potential criminals, in a country struggling with a major illegal immigration problem. Illegal immigrants, who number in the millions in the Kingdom, are blamed for exacerbating the already grave unemployment problem among citizens and legal residents of the country. These tensions come to a head during the hajj, a time of mass migration when many enter the country illegally; an estimated 10 percent of pilgrims overstay their hajj visas.

48

economic Venetia Porter and M.A.S Abdel Haleem

16th century

Bedouin to pck p lost property etc and help stragglers but if not paid by the amir they would attack hajj on return journey for good purchased in mecca?

Economy of mecca was reliant on the pilgrimahe


16-18 c
Mecca – indian and ethipopian goods. Silk, cotton, spices, incence, wax

· Portugese levied a tax to pilgrims travelling over the red sea

Suleyman the Magnificent commissioned architect Sinan to build the suleymaniyya mosque complex in Damascus – it was supposed to be a place for pilgrims to assemble. There was a soup kitchen there and a place sed aside fe pilgrims tents

Ottoman sultan selim I was supposed to pay off the Bedouin tribes and give alms to the poor

Pasha of Damascus was usually the amir of the hajj from 1708. He was to tour Syrian sub provinces in order to raise money for the pilgrimage

Bedouin attack 1757 due to economic desperation from 2 yrs of droughts

20 century
· Syrian economy was losing out ass many travelled by sea

When Sau’di took the hijaz conditions improved for pilgrims. He forced guides to lower prices

· Before discovery of oil, pilgrims were only source of income in Saudi so there was an entry tax levied. However due to glabal depression, pilgrims remained low. 40000 1931 and 20500 1934
· When oil struck, facilities improved for pilgrims and tax lifted

49

political Venetia Porter and M.A.S Abdel Haleem

16- 18 century

Security was less good in mecca in 17c as devshirme was infiltrated by civilian p180

19 century
Dutch had rebels wanting a more strict islam brought back to western Sumatra here they ruled. This was learned by religious teachings in mecca. Resulted in dutch issuing permits and requiring they check nto the consulates on arrival and departure

· British government enforced minimum standards of accommodation on ships for the indian govt. India did not want to do this thinking that the pilgrims would be resened by muslims feeling like they were being controlled by the govt. 1880 finally saw regulations and control – Thomas Cook briefly appointed as the sole travel agent for the journey

1870s dutch started to compete with british for steamship travel of pilgrims

· India office did appoint soldier to oversee conditions of the hajj and brought in the hajj passport

20 century
1927 hajj from Karachi pilgrims had to make wills before boarding the ship

Sharif husayn insisted on pilgrims being quarantined twice

50

scholarship Venetia Porter and M.A.S Abdel Haleem



Before 1800 (west Africa?) Hajj was preserved for religious scholars

Mecca and Medina famous as centres of religious scholarship for many pilgrims

51

religious practice Venetia Porter and M.A.S Abdel Haleem

16th century
Hajj was so dangerous that some religious scholars in the Sudan and elsewhere argued that it was not compulsory


19 century

Hajj decline 19c. Ottoman spending less on hajj. Most travelled by sea and overland hajj declined. Overland hajj from Damascus declined from tebs of thousand to 800 late 1870s.