Flashcards in Hazardous Waste Site Selection and Treatment Technologies - Test II Material Deck (54):
Elimination or substitution of toxic materials at the source
Recovery, reuse and treatment of HW
Material that can not be recycled and must be disposed of
Tax breaks, savings on disposal costs, savings on manufacturing costs, avoidance of expensive tratment
HW generators must show reduction efforts through reporting to maintain certification
Reduction in HW results in an increase in worker and workplace safety
Pollution prevention and reduction can be marketed to the public to increase sales of product as a positive connection to the environment
Dregding and Irrigation
- Removal of soil or sediments form waterways, harbors or irrigation canals in order to keep them navigable or flowing properly
- Material may be hazardous if it contains hazardous materials from industrial or farming activities
By-products of mining, which are usually composed of silts, fine sands and other aggregates
Increased surface area and porosity often results in more what?
Rapid oxidation and hydrolysis of natural minerals that can accumulate more rapidly as waste products
List waste sources
1. Dredging and irrigation
2. Mining and quarrying
3. Farming and ranching
4. Residential, commercial, municipal, etc.
Any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial activities...
Types of Solid Waste?
Solid waste that because of its quantity, concentration, physical, chemical or infectious characteristics may cause substantial risks to human health or the env.
HW falls under 3 main headings (source wastes)
3. Commercial chemical product
Radioactive waste that is typically the result of defense-related activities, nuclear power plants and spent fuel rods
HLW - High-Level Waste
Radioactive waste that is the result of reprocessing nuclear fuels and from making nuclear weapons
TUR - Transuranic Waste
Radioactive waste that is the remainder of radioactive waste including hospitals, industrial plants, universities and commercial labs
LLW - Low-Level Waste
Residues from the mining and extraction of uranium from ore
2. Improper Handling and Disposal
3. Toxic Chemicals
4. Human Effects
5. Effects on Ecosystems
Radiation effect that is immediate or long term effects that can range from minor discomfort to death
Radiation effect that involves gene mutations or chromosome abnormalities
Recovery of a valuable material from a hazardous waste
Passive exchange where generators provide information on waste products for the purpose of informing others of their potential recyclable materials
Physical transfer of generators wastes to secondary users
4 major categories of HW treatment
Bar racks, strainers and screens used to separate large solids from liquids
Gravitational separation of solids from liquids by particle size, shape, density and the viscosity of the liquid
Separation of solids from liquid with centrifuges to produce low-moisture, high-strength cake
Types of PPE
Levels A - D, with A being the highest level of protection
Boundary between the exclusion zone and the contaminant reduction zone
Area free of contamination
Area set aside around exclusion zone for personnel and equipment decontamination (transition zone)
Contaminant Reduction Zone
After the nature of HW is determined, safety plans are developed and HW sites are zoned
Physical entry into potential HW site with PPE
Background information and reconnaissance of waster site before entry
Pre-entry Offsite Characterization
Waste site safety procedures
1. Develop organizational structure
2. Comprehensive work plan
3. Implementation of site safety and health plan
4. Coordination of operations w/ local officials
Combustion of HW to change waste composition by driving off volatiles
Separation of volatiles through endothermic reactions at low temps in the absence of oxygen
Confined, shallow subsurface containment
Soil is used as disposal with simultaneous treatment
Non-flowing HW that may be used as storage, treatment or disposal
Surface facilities designed to hold liquid wastes or liquid containing wastes.
Disposal of liquid wastes into the subsurface
Deep well injection
Utilization of mines to dispose of waste
Secured subsurface voids for waste disposal
Inorganic chemicals or polymers are added to waste liquids to cause the agglomeration very fine particles
Transfer of dissolved molecules from a liquid to a vapor state usually by passing air or gas through the liquid waste
What is an example of an infectious waste?
What hazardous waste disposal method uses combustion to change hazardous waste composition and drive off volatiles?
What type of nuclear waste is the result of reprocessing nuclear fuels or from making of nuclear weapons?
TUR - Transuranic Waste
What term best describes the recovery of a valuable material from a hazardous waste?