Hazardous Waste Site Selection and Treatment Technologies - Test II Material Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hazardous Waste Site Selection and Treatment Technologies - Test II Material Deck (54):
1

Elimination or substitution of toxic materials at the source

Source Reduction

2

Recovery, reuse and treatment of HW

Recycling

3

Material that can not be recycled and must be disposed of

Residual Disposal

4

Tax breaks, savings on disposal costs, savings on manufacturing costs, avoidance of expensive tratment

Economic incentives

5

HW generators must show reduction efforts through reporting to maintain certification

Regulatory Incentives

6

Reduction in HW results in an increase in worker and workplace safety

Liability

7

Pollution prevention and reduction can be marketed to the public to increase sales of product as a positive connection to the environment

Public Image

8

Dregding and Irrigation

- Removal of soil or sediments form waterways, harbors or irrigation canals in order to keep them navigable or flowing properly
- Material may be hazardous if it contains hazardous materials from industrial or farming activities

9

By-products of mining, which are usually composed of silts, fine sands and other aggregates

Mine tailings

10

Increased surface area and porosity often results in more what?

Rapid oxidation and hydrolysis of natural minerals that can accumulate more rapidly as waste products

11

List waste sources

1. Dredging and irrigation
2. Mining and quarrying
3. Farming and ranching
4. Residential, commercial, municipal, etc.
5. Industrial
6. Nuclear

12

Any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial activities...

Solid Waste

13

Types of Solid Waste?

- Household
- Commercial
- Industrial

14

Hazardous Waste

Solid waste that because of its quantity, concentration, physical, chemical or infectious characteristics may cause substantial risks to human health or the env.

15

HW falls under 3 main headings (source wastes)

1. Nonspecific
2. Specific
3. Commercial chemical product

16

Radioactive waste that is typically the result of defense-related activities, nuclear power plants and spent fuel rods

HLW - High-Level Waste

17

Radioactive waste that is the result of reprocessing nuclear fuels and from making nuclear weapons

TUR - Transuranic Waste

18

Radioactive waste that is the remainder of radioactive waste including hospitals, industrial plants, universities and commercial labs

LLW - Low-Level Waste

19

Residues from the mining and extraction of uranium from ore

Mill Tailings

20

Environmental concerns

1. Quantity
2. Improper Handling and Disposal
3. Toxic Chemicals
4. Human Effects
5. Effects on Ecosystems

21

Radiation effect that is immediate or long term effects that can range from minor discomfort to death

Somantic effects

22

Radiation effect that involves gene mutations or chromosome abnormalities

Genetic effects

23

Recovery of a valuable material from a hazardous waste

Reclamation

24

Passive exchange where generators provide information on waste products for the purpose of informing others of their potential recyclable materials

Information exchanges

25

Physical transfer of generators wastes to secondary users

Material Exchanges

26

4 major categories of HW treatment

1. Physical
2. Chemical
3. Biological
4. Other

27

Bar racks, strainers and screens used to separate large solids from liquids

Screening

28

Gravitational separation of solids from liquids by particle size, shape, density and the viscosity of the liquid

Sedimentation

29

Separation of solids from liquid with centrifuges to produce low-moisture, high-strength cake

Centrifugation

30

Types of PPE

Levels A - D, with A being the highest level of protection

31

Boundary between the exclusion zone and the contaminant reduction zone

Hotline

32

Area free of contamination

Support Zone

33

Contaminated area

Exclusion Zone

34

Area set aside around exclusion zone for personnel and equipment decontamination (transition zone)

Contaminant Reduction Zone

35

After the nature of HW is determined, safety plans are developed and HW sites are zoned

Site Control

36

Physical entry into potential HW site with PPE

Onsite Survey

37

Background information and reconnaissance of waster site before entry

Pre-entry Offsite Characterization

38

Waste site safety procedures

1. Develop organizational structure
2. Comprehensive work plan
3. Implementation of site safety and health plan
4. Coordination of operations w/ local officials

39

Combustion of HW to change waste composition by driving off volatiles

Incineration

40

Separation of volatiles through endothermic reactions at low temps in the absence of oxygen

Pyrolysis

41

Confined, shallow subsurface containment

Landfill

42

Soil is used as disposal with simultaneous treatment

Land Farm

43

Non-flowing HW that may be used as storage, treatment or disposal

Waste Pile

44

Surface facilities designed to hold liquid wastes or liquid containing wastes.

Surface impoundment

45

Disposal of liquid wastes into the subsurface

Deep well injection

46

Utilization of mines to dispose of waste

Underground disposal

47

Secured subsurface voids for waste disposal

Vaults/Bunkers

48

Inorganic chemicals or polymers are added to waste liquids to cause the agglomeration very fine particles

Coagulation/Flocculation

49

Transfer of dissolved molecules from a liquid to a vapor state usually by passing air or gas through the liquid waste

Stripping

50

What is an example of an infectious waste?

Hypodermic needle

51

What hazardous waste disposal method uses combustion to change hazardous waste composition and drive off volatiles?

Incineration

52

What type of nuclear waste is the result of reprocessing nuclear fuels or from making of nuclear weapons?

TUR - Transuranic Waste

53

What term best describes the recovery of a valuable material from a hazardous waste?

Reclamation

54

What term describes the use or reuse of material as an ingredient in another product?

Recycling