Flashcards in Henry 7th Foreign Policy + Relations Deck (14)
What were Henry's Initial Relations with France?
In early months of reign Henry made 1 year Truce with France which later extended to another 2 years. However once France wanted to gain control of Brittany and strip it of its independence relations soon became hostile.
After Treaty of Estaples relations improved and France was tied up with conflicts with Italy + Spain which made them preoccupated for a lot of Henry's later reign.
What was the Brittany Crisis?
As Anne was only child of Fransis 11 and couldnt take throne the French saw it as perfect opportunity for Charles V111vto marry her and unite Brittany under French control. This alarmed Henry ;
1- because he felt strong sense of obligation to brittans after harbouring him in exile
2-His fears that French control could increase major treat to England.
Explain Key events of Brittany Crisis and War with France.
H made commercial treaty Treaty of Redon with Anne to pay for small English army to come defend Brittany.
- In 1489 he summoned parliament for extra ordinary revenue against French and formed alliance w Maximillian who had n interest in Anne falling into French hands.
- English soldiers went to Brittany but marooned after out of fear, Anne agreed to marry Charles and Max lost interest.
- At same time PerkinW appeared o scene in France and they welcomed him, Sparking Henry to launch Invasion of France in 1492.
Henry had been informed that French were preoccupied w Italy and had no interest fuelling war with England so would quickly offer Peace treaty.
The French did quickly offer Treaty, the Treaty of Estaples.
State the Terms of Treaty of Estaples
- Henry was payed off, his expenses in launching invasion for soldiers.
- French pension around £12,500 per annum for 15 years.
- French promised to abandon Warbeck and no longer support pretenders to English throne.
- In exchange Henry had to acknowledge Brittany was now apart of France.
What were some of the Consequences of War with France/Treaty of Etaples?
Henrys strategy proved more successful than initial aim to save Brittany, he managed to defend both national and dynastic interests. Moreover improved his financial position( French pension) and ensured period of relative peace w France, he couldn't be 100% sure of French good faith but regardless was highly effective. French were seen to have bought off England and French war with Italy guaranteed hostility between France and Spain for long period so threat from France was predominately lifted.
What Were Henry/England's Relations with Spain?
Under King Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile Spain was united.
- This was excellent for England too as posed strong alliance against mutual enemy France.
- The Treaty of Medina Del Campo was signed in 1489 securing marriage between Arthur and Cathrine of Aragon.
- However Prince Arthur suddenly died in 1502 leaving alliance servery weekend. Henry and Spain proposed Catherine could marry Henry which took place in 1503. Fact even after Arthurs death Spain still wanted alliance with England is significant and highlights how powerful and permeant Henry was seen as.
Explain the Castilian succession crisis and effects it had on Henrys alliance with Spain.
Upon Queen Isabella's death she wrote that Castile should be handed down to her sister Joanna of Castile. However Ferdinand wanted to rule all of Spain claimed regency of castile for himself. Ferdinand allied with France in treaty of Blois which strengthened his position in Spain. Henry began moving away from alliance w Ferdinand and agreed to support Joanna in exchange to hand over Duke of Suffolk ending his alliance w Spain completely. Yet Philip died and Joanna went mad which ended all plans of retaking Spain and Henry was left without any alliance w Spain or Ferdinand.
Describe England's Initial Relations with Scotland
- Scottish threat was never too great due to weak rulers or defeats.
- In 1486 Scotland signed 3 year Truce with England. James V1 advisors were hostile toward England but James was on good terms with Yorkist English visitors and Margaret of Burgundy!!
- Henry was keen to negotiate Truce w Scotland however They signed Treaty with France which was a threat to Henry.
- Perkin Warbeck appeared at Scottish court. Henry proposed alliance of marriage between James and Margaret and eventually James grew bored of Warbeck and agreed.
- The Truce of Ayton was signed in 1497 and renewed 1502. This neutralised Scottish threat.
Why was Ireland a threat to Henry?
Ireland was potential launch pad for Yorkist pretenders and foreign invasions to England.
Although in name Henry was the monarch + leader of Ireland - In reality Henry didn't control much of Ireland only small section called 'The Pale' and didn't hold control of the actions of the Irish.
Simnel was crowned King there in Dublin cathedral in 1486 .
What were Henrys relation with Ireland like?
Kildare a powerful Yorkist lord was appointed by Irish and in 1491 he supported PerkinW which put further pressure on Henry.
Henry sent Ponying's as deputy to restore direct rule. He passed Ponying's law in 1495 which made it illegal to pass new laws without permission of the King.
It was becoming too expensive to involve himself deeply in Ireland.
They made Truce where Kildare swore to drop support for Warbeck and pledged allegiance to Henry the situation between Ireland and England remained fine for rest of Henrys reign.
What were the Key marriage alliances of Henry 7th Children?
Arthur married Catherine of Aragon but died 6 months later in 1502. Then [prince Henry married Catherine of Aragon in 1503.
Margaret married King JmaesV1 of Scotland.
Much later Mary married King Louis X11 Of France.
How Successful overall was Henrys Foreign Policy for his dynastic interests ?
- Marriage alliances were essential part of foreign diplomacy and Henry found appropriate marriages for all 4 of his children. By doing so for many years he was able to manipulate international situation to enhance his security and that of the Tudor dynasty.
- Arthurs death left dynastic insecurity as he was heir + it became the young Henry which would become a huge problem if he died before Henry reached Maturity.
- However his marriage to Catherine was a good and powerful one which allied Spain and re-secured there alliance for most of his reign.
- He initially used FP well and was broadly successful , he avoided an expensive war - although caught out with Castilian crisis (which left him isolated toward end of his reign) - on a whole was successful.
What points could you agree that Henry failed to achieve his aims in his foreign policy?
Instances of failure and questionable decisions;
- Brittany crisis - he failed to achieve initial aims and avoiding war isn't always a problem solver.
- Castilian succession crisis he made questionable and poorly judged decision left him isolated and forfitted powerful alliance