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Flashcards in Histology of Bone an Joint Deck (51):
1

Hyaline cartilage is made out of

Collagen type 2
Aggrecans (chondroitin sulphate, heparan suphate)
Hyaluronic Acid
Chondronectin

2

what is connective tissue made of?

Cells + Ground Substance + Fibres

3

where can you find collagen type 2?

Hyaline Cartilage

4

if to hyaline cartilage elastin is added we obtain?

elastic cartilage

5

elastic cartilage is found in?

ears, epiglottis and larynx

6

Fibrocartilage can be described as

mixture of dense connective tissue and isolated islands of cartilage

7

Fibroblasts differentiate into

Chondrocytes

8

in fibrocartilage the main type of collagen found is

Type 1 collagen

9

Fibrous Cartilage gas perichondrium T/F

F

10

where can fibrocartilage be found?

meniscus and intervertebral discs

11

what is the structure of a intervertebral disc?

external ring of fibrocartilage (annulus fibrosis)
nucleus pulposus (collagen type 2)

12

around what age does the nucleus pulpous disappears

~20 yo

13

what are the 2 pain types of bone

Compact Bone
Trabecular Bone

14

where are the Haversian Systems found?

in compact bone

15

what is a Haversian System?

Columns of bone made of lamellae (layers) around a blood vessel that run longitudinal to the bone and parallel to the lines of stress

16

What are the main 3 types of cells found in bone?

osteoblast
osteocyte
osteoclast

17

filling the trabecular bone one can find either

Yellow or Red bone marrow

18

Can yellow marrow become haematopoietic again?

yes, it preserves some cells with haematopoietic potential

19

Red Marrow's capillaries have ----1---- instead of capillaries

Sinusoids, to allow material leakage

20

Some of the bones that are important for haematopoiesis in the adult are

jaw
scapula
skull
pelvis

21

what is the periosteum?

layer of connective tissue that covers bone outside
(inside is the endosteum)

22

what can be found in the outer layer of the periosteum?

more fibrous layer, fibroblasts blood vessels and collagen

23

what can be found in the inner layer of the periosteum? and what is it similar to?

more cellular than the outer, osteoprogenitor cells can be found there
Endosteum

24

where in the bone there is no periosteum?

where there is the insertion of tendons and ligaments

25

at the site of tendon insertion to the bone the collagen fibres are continuous with those collagen fibres within the bone T/F? this is called....

T
Sharpey's Fibres

26

blood supply to the bone occurs at 2 discrete sites these are

Epiphysis (small retinacular arteries)
Diaphysis (large artery that subdivides in the marrow)

27

hyaline cartilage of the articulatory surface has a perichondrium and is heavy vascularised T/F

F
No perichondrium, not heavily vascularised
if the cartilage is damaged it will take a long time to repair

28

Synovial Fluid is similar to what other substance in the body

Plasma as it also is an ultrafiltrate of plasma with the addition of proteoglycans to make it more slippery

29

the synovial membrane is an epithelium T/F

F
just a stack of cells
heavily leaky
not many adhesion between the molecules (no intercalated discs)

30

what are the cells that make up the synovial membrane?

Type A Synoviocytes (Macrophages)
Type B Synoviocytes (Fibroblasts)

31

in the synovial membrane which layer is the main producer of fluid

the Subintimal layer (fibrous connective tissue, heavy vascularisation)

32

Different name for a OSTEON

Haversian System

33

what is the metabolic unit of the bone?

Haversian System

34

osteoprogenitor cells of bone can be found in

Inner layer of the periosteum and endosteum

35

Where are localised osteoblasts and what is their function?

on the surface of the bone
lay down matrix that will become bone (OSTEOID)

36

main type of collagen found in bone?

Type 1 Collagen

37

Where are osteocytes found? function?

within the lamellae of bone in the Haversian System
--> Maintain bone healthy (has little processes that connect one with another and ultimately with a blood vessel). Can reabsorb bone to release Ca+2 if needed

38

osteoclast characteristics? function

Giant, multinucleate cells that DESTROY bone
creates a little pit underneath it, and seals itself around it, releasing acid products and enzymes (proteases and phosphatases) for the breakdown of bone

39

what can be measured in plasma in order to ascertain osteoclast activity?

Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase

40

what is the main driver for increased osteoclast activity?

PTH

41

cell lineage osteoclasts come from?

monocyte/macrophage lineage from the bone marrow

42

During foetal development what are the 2 main types of bone laid down?

Membrane Bone
Endochondral Bone

43

What is the process of membrane bone formation? what are some examples?

bone directly deposited into embryonic tissue from the mesenchyme
skull, mandible, flat bones of face and clavicles

44

All weight baring bone and extremity bones are of which formation type?

Endochondral bone

45

Endochondral Bone formation requires transforming cartilage into bone T/F

F
Not making bone out of cartilage but rather destroying cartilage whilst making bone using the cartilage as a mould

46

Describe the formation of bone from the cartilage mould

Bone collar forms around diaphysis
■ The cartilage beneath the ollar degenerates
■ Blood vessels invade, bring in bone cell progenitors
■ A second nucleus of ossification appears in each epiphysis
■ Zones of ossification grow together, but leave a thin zone of cartilage, the growth plate


47

when'd does the growth plate disappears?

~ 21-22 y

48

what are the layers of the growth plate?

Resting Zone
Proliferation Zone
Maturation Zone
Hypertrophic Zone
Ossification

49

during development or after injury (during repair) a specific kind of bone is produced what is its name? what are its characteristics?

Woven Bone
more cellular, more collagen No Haversian Systems (little ossification, not very strong)

50

Remodelling of bone occurs down the lines of ---1--- of the bone

Lines of Stress

51

order of events for bone remodelling

Osteoclast Reabsorption
Invasion of the blood vessel
Osteoblast deposition of bone in lamella
(osteoblast trapped become osteocytes)