History People and Places You Need to Know 753 BC - 201 BC Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in History People and Places You Need to Know 753 BC - 201 BC Deck (82):
1

7 Hills of Rome

Palatine, Aventine, Esquiline, Capitoline, Caelian, Quirinal, and Viminal

2

Alba Longa

City where the founders of Rome (Romulus and Remus) were from.

3

Amulius

Evil king of Alba Longa; grand-uncle to Romulus and Remus

4

Faustulus

Shepherd who raised Romulus and Remus

5

Numitor

Grandfather of Romulus and Remus

6

Remus

Brother of Romulus; founded his city on the Aventine Hill

7

Rhea Silvia

Mother of Romulus and Remus with Mars

8

Romulus

First King of Rome; established his city on the Palatine Hill; becomes deified as Quirinus

9

Tarpeia

Woman who betrayed the Romans for the Sabines; asked for "What was on their left arms" (assuming to be bracelets) and she would let the Sabines into the city; Sabines gave her their shields instead (as in they bashed her with their shields, which were technically on their left arms)

10

Titus Tatius

Sabine king who co-ruled with Romulus

11

Numa Pompilius

Second king of Rome; peace bringer; brought religion to Rome; established the calendar; brought the cult of Vesta; established Temple of Janus; said to have a nymph consort named Egeria

12

Horatii & Curiatii

Two sets of triplets who fought during the reign of Tullus Hostilius; Horatii=Roman, Curiatii=Alba Longan; Horatii win

13

Tullus Hostilius

Third King of Rome; destroyed Alba Longa; built the Curia

14

Ancus Marcius

4th King of Rome; built the first bridge across the Tiber at Rome (the Pons Sublicius), captured the salt pits at the Tiber's mouth from the Etruscans, and founded the port city of Ostia.

15

Tanaquil

Wife of Tarquinius Priscus; associated with detected several prophesies, namely of Tarquinius Priscus and Servius Tullius

16

Tarquinius Priscus

Fifth King of Rome; while on his way to Rome, and eagle took his cap, flew off, and then returned it; Tanaquil interpreted this as a sign; Priscus="The Elder"; he is known to have drained the Forum, begun construction of the Circus Maximus, and begun construction of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus

17

Servius Tullius

Sixth King of Rome; son of slave woman Ocrisia; his hair appeared to burn without harming him; Tanaquil sees omen and declares him Priscus' successor; built a wall around Rome (Servian Wall) and a Temple of Diana on the Aventine

18

Tarquinius Superbus

Seventh King of Rome; Superbus = "The Proud"; Finished construction of Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus; His son, Sextus, led to the fall of the Monarchy because he raped a woman by the name of Lucretia

19

Tullia

Daughter of Servius Tullius who murdered her first husband, married Tarquinius Superbus, and then helped Superbus murder her father

20

Collatinus

Husband of Lucretia; one of the first consuls of Rome

21

Etruria/Etruscans

Region in Italia slightly north of Latium (area where Rome is)

22

L. Junius Brutus

One of the first consuls of Rome

23

Horatius Cocles

Cocles="One-Eyed"; single-handedly fought off the Etruscans on the Pons Sublicius

24

Lars Porsenna

King of Etruria; Helped Tarquinius Superbus when Superbus was exiled from Rome

25

Mucius Scaevola

prisoner of Lars Porsenna who became known as "Lefty" because he thrust his right hand into a fire to show his courage to Lars Porsenna, and so Lars released him

26

Cloelia

swam across the Tiber River to escape Lars Porsenna

27

Lake Regillus

Battle in 496 BC where the Romans defeat the Latin League

28

Coriolanus

Defeated Volscians at Corioli; Later becomes the Volscian general and marches on Rome after Rome exile him; Coriolanus' wife (Volumnia) and mother (Veturia) convince him to stop

29

Volsci

Italian tribe who Coriolanus first defeats, then becomes their general after Rome exiles him

30

Aequi

Tribe that fought Cincinnatus on Mount Algidus in 458 BC

31

Cincinnatus

fought the Aequi at Mount Algidus in 458 BC; "left his plow" to be dictator for only 16 days, then returned to his plow

32

Mt. Algidus

Battle of 458 BC where Cincinnatus defeated the Aequi

33

Appius Claudius Decemvir

Head of Decemviri, group designed to construct Laws of the 12 Tables; wrongfully attempted to enslave the plebeian maiden Verginia

34

Verginia

Name of woman who Appius Claudius the Decemvir tried to enslave

35

Verginius

Father of Verginia; murders her so that Appius Claudius cannot enslave her

36

Veii

City near Rome who fought with Rome on several occasions in the early Republic

37

M. Furius Camillus

"Second Founder of Rome"; captures Veii in 396 BC

38

Brennus

Gallic Chieftain who defeats Rome at the Battle of Alia River in 390 BC; famously said "Vae Victis" ("Woe to the Conquered")

39

Gauls/Senones

Roman term for the Celtic people of the north; Senones were the tribe that sacked Rome at the Battle of Allia River in 390 BC

40

M. Manlius

heard the "cackling geese of Juno" and alerted everyone of the attack on Rome in 390 BC

41

Lex Licinia-Sextia

Law of 367 BC which required there to be one plebian and one patrician consul each year

42

Samnites

Italian tribe who fought three wars against Rome

43

Caudine Forks

Roman defeat against Samnites in 321 BC during Second Samnite War

44

Appius Claudius Caecus/Censor

Builder of the Appian Way in 312 BC as well as fist high-level aqueduct, Aqua Appia; Caecus means "the Blind"

45

Decius Mus

General at Battle of Sentinum; perfored act of "devotio" to win battle

46

Sentinum

Battle in 295 BC during the Third Samnite War; Roman victory after Decius Mus performs an act of devotio to encourage his troops

47

Q. Hortensius (dictator)/ Lex Hortensia

wrote Lex Hortensia to resolve the last secession of the plebs. Lex: all resolutions passed by plebians were binding on all citizens

48

Heraclea

First battle of Pyrrhic War in 280 BC

49

Pyrrhus

King of Epirus (city in Greece) who came to the aid of Tarentum to fight the Romans in the Pyrrhic War

50

Tarentum

City in Italy that sought the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus against the Romans, thus initiating the Pyrrhic War

51

Asculum

Second Battle of Pyrrhic War in 279 BC; Pyrrhus wins but at too great a price; known as a "Pyrrhic Victory"

52

Fabricius

refused a bribe from Pyrrhus

53

Beneventum

Final battle of the Pyrrhic War in 275 BC; Rome wins

54

Mamertines

group of mercenaries in Sicily whose aid Rome came to, thus causing the First Punic War

55

Messana/Straits of Messana

Area between Sicily and the tip of Italy where the First Punic War began

56

Carthage

Fought 3 wars with Rome: 1st Punic War (264 BC - 241 BC), 2nd Punic War (218 BC - 201 BC), and 3rd Punic War (149 BC - 146 BC)

57

C. Duilius

Successful general at the Battle of Mylae in 260 BC; used corvus (a spiked gang plank) to win

58

Mylae

First naval victory for Rome in 260 BC during the First Punic War

59

Regulus

Roman commander during the First Punic War; was captured by Carthaginians; they asked him return to Rome, tell Rome to stop fighting, and come back to be executed; Regulus did everything except tell Rome to stop fighting, he instead encouraged them to keep on fighting

60

Hamilcar Barca

Carthaginian general towards the end of the First Punic War

61

Syracuse

Major city in Sicily

62

Drepanum

Battle in 249 BC during the First Punic War; Roman defeat; before battle Claudius Pulcher threw sacred chickens overboard, thus ensuring their defeat

63

P. Claudius Pulcher

Romen general who threw the sacred chickens overboard and thus ensured the Roman defeat of Drepanum in 249 BC during the First Punic War

64

Xanthippus

Spartan mercenary who the Carthaginians hire during the First Punic War

65

Aegates Islands

Last battle of the 1st Punic War; Rome wins.

66

Corsica

One of the two islands to become Rome's second province

67

Lutatius Catulus

Victorious Roman general at Battle of Aegates Islands in 241 BC

68

Sardinia

One of the two islands two become Rome's second province after the First Punic War

69

M. Claudius Marcellus

Third and final receiver of the spolia opima; did so at the Battle of Clastidium in 222 BC by defeating Viridomarus in hand-to-hand combat

70

Teuta

Queen of Illyria during the Illyrian War, a minor war between the First and Second Punic Wars

71

Ebro River

River that Carthaginians were not allowed to cross; Hannibal crosses it and thus begins the Second Punic War

72

Hannibal

Carthaginian general during Second Punic War

73

Saguntum

City sacked by Hannibal in 218 BC which initiates the Second Punic War

74

Lake Trasimene

Battle in 217 BC during the Second Punic War; Romans lose to Carthaginians

75

Cannae

Major Roman defeat during 2nd Punic War; known as Rome's greatest defeat

76

Q. Fabius Maximus Cunctator

Known as the "delayer" for his delaying tactics during the former half of the Second Punic War

77

P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus

Roman general during the latter half of the Second Punic War who had several victories

78

Syphax

Numidian king who assisted Carthaginians during Second Punic War

79

Hasdrubal

Brother of Hannibal; dies at Battle of Metaurus River in 207 BC

80

Metaurus River

Battle of 207 BC during the Second Punic War where the Romans defeat the Carthaginian general Hasdrubal

81

Zama

Final Battle in 202 BC during the Second Punic War

82

C. Flaminius

Consul of 198 BC; took command in Macedonia; defeated Philip V of Macedon at Cynoscephalae in 197 BC; declared all Greeks to be free