IFAT #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in IFAT #2 Deck (24):
1

What is urban geography?

the people, infrastructure, and processes of cities

2

What are 3 major historical revolutions in urban growth?

0-1500 AD Agricultural Revolution

1800s-early 1900s Industrial Revolution

1950s, 1970s Transportation Revolution

3

How did the role of cities grow?

- efficient environment for labour, capital, materials, etc.

- public and private institutions

- competition and interaction bring innovation

- liberating variety of people/lifestyles

4

What are the 3 classic urban land-use models?

concentric zone/ring (centralization)
sector/wedge
multi-nuclei (decentralization)

5

What is the Concentric Zone model?

1925
prompted by industrial revolution
cities expand symmetrically around CBD
based on bid-rent theory

6

What is the bid-rent theory?

users bid for land/location, highest bid gets land
as you move away from core, rent will go down

commercial - will pay high rent for high traffic areas

manufacturing
- will pay to be close to employment and core

residents
- want to be close to core, but can travel

agriculture
- need cheap land but access to market

7

What assumptions do the Concentric Zone model run on?

uniform land surface
universal accessibility
one mode of transport
competition for space

8

What is a CBD?

central business district

centre of commerce (offices, retail, banks, hotels, theatres, etc.)
light manufacturing and wholesaling

9

What is a transition area?

mix of housing (slums, converted room housing)

light manufacturing/offices

10

What are "working-class" homes?

close to CBD employment
apartments, town houses, dense housing

11

What are "better" residents?

newer, spacious, single family homes

12

What are commuter suburbs?

intermittent residences, small satellite towns

13

What is the sector model?

city grows in wedges radiating from core
relaxes assumption about uniform accessibility
- considers differences in accessibility and land values along transport lines

light rail revolution (1800s, early 1900s)
highway revolution (1980s)

14

What is the multi-nuclei model?

zones of land us form around different centres
relax assumption about only 1 CBD
allow satellite centres

15

What is the new urban reality?

classic models don't necessarily fit
freeway networks diminished CBD advantage (auto-based sprawl)

16

What are some new trends?

inner city decay
de-industrialization in core
downtowns giving way to edge cities

17

What is inner city decay?

mostly North American phenomena
run down homes, empty lots, foreclosure
high unemployment rates, companies cutting jobs

18

What are the 3 main types of de-industrialization activity?

primary industries
- mineral, agriculture (land resources)

secondary/manufacturing industries
- take resources and make tangible product

tertiary/service industries
- health, media, education

19

What are the current de-industrialization patterns?

growth in service industry
creative class emerging

new tech/service growth = decline in friction of distance

industries moving to urban fringe (green fields) or offshore
brown fields (post-factory) becoming available space

20

What are the 5 main transportation eras?

compact walking era
electric street car era
rec auto era
auto/freeway era
ring road era

21

What is the compact walking era?

1800-1890
small and dense
mixed land use
some wheeled traffic (horse)
CBD forms at most accessible location (centre, unless other impediments)
people live withing walking distance of CBD

22

What is the electric streetcar era?

1890-1920
pressures of growth = transit revolution
electric streetcar/rail trolley
- tripled speeds
- commuting range opened up
- rapid residential development on fringe

23

What is the rec auto era?

auto a luxury
led to modest infilling and expansion
residential construction on fringe
industry begins to disperse
ethnic and economic segregation continues

24

What is the auto/freeway era?

high speeds + lots of land + cheap gas = rapid low density expansion
unprecedented growth
autodependance
beginning of sub-centres and suburban sprawl