Flashcards in IFAT #2 Deck (24):
What is urban geography?
the people, infrastructure, and processes of cities
What are 3 major historical revolutions in urban growth?
0-1500 AD Agricultural Revolution
1800s-early 1900s Industrial Revolution
1950s, 1970s Transportation Revolution
How did the role of cities grow?
- efficient environment for labour, capital, materials, etc.
- public and private institutions
- competition and interaction bring innovation
- liberating variety of people/lifestyles
What are the 3 classic urban land-use models?
concentric zone/ring (centralization)
What is the Concentric Zone model?
prompted by industrial revolution
cities expand symmetrically around CBD
based on bid-rent theory
What is the bid-rent theory?
users bid for land/location, highest bid gets land
as you move away from core, rent will go down
commercial - will pay high rent for high traffic areas
- will pay to be close to employment and core
- want to be close to core, but can travel
- need cheap land but access to market
What assumptions do the Concentric Zone model run on?
uniform land surface
one mode of transport
competition for space
What is a CBD?
central business district
centre of commerce (offices, retail, banks, hotels, theatres, etc.)
light manufacturing and wholesaling
What is a transition area?
mix of housing (slums, converted room housing)
What are "working-class" homes?
close to CBD employment
apartments, town houses, dense housing
What are "better" residents?
newer, spacious, single family homes
What are commuter suburbs?
intermittent residences, small satellite towns
What is the sector model?
city grows in wedges radiating from core
relaxes assumption about uniform accessibility
- considers differences in accessibility and land values along transport lines
light rail revolution (1800s, early 1900s)
highway revolution (1980s)
What is the multi-nuclei model?
zones of land us form around different centres
relax assumption about only 1 CBD
allow satellite centres
What is the new urban reality?
classic models don't necessarily fit
freeway networks diminished CBD advantage (auto-based sprawl)
What are some new trends?
inner city decay
de-industrialization in core
downtowns giving way to edge cities
What is inner city decay?
mostly North American phenomena
run down homes, empty lots, foreclosure
high unemployment rates, companies cutting jobs
What are the 3 main types of de-industrialization activity?
- mineral, agriculture (land resources)
- take resources and make tangible product
- health, media, education
What are the current de-industrialization patterns?
growth in service industry
creative class emerging
new tech/service growth = decline in friction of distance
industries moving to urban fringe (green fields) or offshore
brown fields (post-factory) becoming available space
What are the 5 main transportation eras?
compact walking era
electric street car era
rec auto era
ring road era
What is the compact walking era?
small and dense
mixed land use
some wheeled traffic (horse)
CBD forms at most accessible location (centre, unless other impediments)
people live withing walking distance of CBD
What is the electric streetcar era?
pressures of growth = transit revolution
electric streetcar/rail trolley
- tripled speeds
- commuting range opened up
- rapid residential development on fringe
What is the rec auto era?
auto a luxury
led to modest infilling and expansion
residential construction on fringe
industry begins to disperse
ethnic and economic segregation continues