Flashcards in Immunizations Deck (76)
What is a vaccine?
any suspension containing antigenic molecules such as preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen derived from a microorganism, given to stimulate an immune response to an infectious disease
What is an immunization?
REMEMBER: includes passive and active immunity
-stimulates the immune system
-process by which an individuals immune system becomes fortified against an agent
What is prophylaxis?
measure taken to maintain health and prevent the spread of disease, such as use of antibiotics to prevent infections
What is a titer? What is an example of a titer?
--measure of amount or concentration of a substance in a solute
-examples are: medicine or antibodies found in patients blood
What is an antibody titer? What are examples of antibody titers that might be checked?
-lab test that measures presence and amount of antibodies in blood
-antibody level in the blood is a refection of past exposures to antigen
-ex: MMR, varicella
If you give someone a tetanus shot after stepping on a nail, what kind of measure are you taking to prevent the patient from getting tetanus?
What is herd immunity?
What kinds of people is it protecting?
a form of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of a significant portion of a population provides a measure of protection for individuals who have not developed immunity
protecting: people who cannot get vaccine, immunocompromised, babies
What is herd immunity threshold?
What threshold do most vaccines need to reduce spread?
% of population vaccinated at which herd immunity is induced
What do vaccines induce in the immune system? How do they work?
--induce B cell proliferation (MEMORY)
--Ab production and response
Similar to natural infection WITHOUT risk of disease
What is an active immunization? What kind of immunity does it provide? How long until reach meaningful immunity?
Active = antigen administration (live, killed, or derivative protein or polysaccharide) or toxin (toxin derivative)
Provides = LONG term immunity
Meaningful = 2-4 WEEKS after vaccination
What is passive immunization? What kind of immunity does it provide? How long until protected?
Passive: administration of pre-formed ANTIBODY
Provides: SHORT term immunity lasting 3-6 MONTHS
What are examples of immunoglobulins therapy (passive immunity)?
Mom w/ HBsAg+ and give Hep B immune globulin within 12 hours of birth
Palivizumab (synagis) for RSV
What are populations that should not receive live vaccinations?
-Chemotherapy and other immunosuppressive drugs (chronic steroids)
What are the viral attenuated vaccines?
What are the attenuated bacterial vaccines?
What do the fractional inactivated vaccines consist of
Protein based: toxoid, subunit
Polysaccharide: cell wall from bacteria, conjugate (polysaccharide is chemically linked to protein)
What are the characteristics of inactivated vaccines?
-not as effective as live
-generally require 3-5 does
-immune response is MOSTLY HUMORAL
-ab titer may diminish with time
What are the whole inactivated viral vaccines?
influenza(not available in the US)
What are the inactivated bacterial whole-cell vaccines?
**None of these are available in the united states
What are the inactivated fractional subunit vaccines?
acellular pertussis (not whole form so know pts won't get full side affect)HPV
What are the inactivated fractional toxoid vaccines?
What are the local side effects to vaccines?
pain, swelling, redness at injection site
Systemic side effects of vaccines?
fever, malaise, headache
may be unrelated to vaccine
What is a contraindication?
condition in a recipient that greatly increases the chance of a serious adverse reaction
What is a precaution?
condition in a recipient that might increase the chance of a serious adverse reaction or compromise the ability of the vaccine to produce immunity
What are some invalid CI to vaccines?
--preggo or immunosuppressed person in house
--allergy to products not present in vaccine or allergy that is not anaphylactic
--family hx of adverse effects
--tuberculin skin testing
--gastric discomfort after eating eggs
What vaccines should household members of immunosuppressed persons get?
What is the providers role in vaccinations?
management of side effects
reporting side effects
benefit and risk communication
storage and administration
timing and space of vaccine doses
observation of CI and precautions
If you had previous anaphylactic rx to specific vaccine what should you do? can you give others?
avoid revaccination with specific vaccines and means you can still give all other vaccines