What is the chain of infection?
What is a "point of care risk assessment"? (AKA PCRA)
What is the rule of thumb?
Assessement of the risk the patient is to spread an infectious diseaes.
Rule of thumb: if they are leaking or soiling the environment, limit their movement and protect yourself
What are the four moments for hand hygiene?
What is the difference between washing with soap and water and alcohol hand rub?
Soap and water removes the organism
alcohol kills the organism
Should you wear gloves when touching a rash?
Technically yes. It counts as non-intact skin.
When to wear a mask, goggles, a gown?
Whenever there is likely to be splashes of body fluids.
What is the difference between a regular mask and an N95 respirator?
Masks are used for droplet precautions, N95 are used for airborne precautions.
What are routine practices?
What are some environmental controls?
What are some examples of source control?
What are AGMPs?
aerosol generating medical procedures: e.g. CPR, intubation, bronchoscopy.
clear non-essential personnel.
What are additional precautions? When are they used?
Implemented by nurses... you'll see a sign on the door telling you what PPE you need and how to clean your hand. e.g. C. difficile infection.
Contact precautions (e.g. C. diff)
Droplet precautions (e.g. pertussis)
Airborne precautions (e.g. TB)
Airborne + contact
***it's important that these precautions be placed on suspected cases in addition to diagnosed cases***
"Epidemiologically significant organisms"
antibiotic resistant organisms (AROs)
HAI: health care associated infection
SSI: surgical site infection
VAP: ventilator associated pneumonia
CLI: central line infection
CDI: C. diff infection
ARO: antibiotic resistant organism
Reportable diseases...some general categories
All food borne illness
Most STI (not HSV or HPV)
Everything you can be vaccinated against....
Many, many more.
Note that there are provincially and nationally reportable disease.
Who is at risk for Hep B?
household contacts of Hep B positive individual
infants born to infected mothers
sexual contacts of Hep B pos. person
health care workers
immigrants from endemic countries
Who is at risk for Hep C?
HCW following needle stick
children born ot Hep C positive mother
Contrast Hep B and Hep C transmission
Hep B: exposure to mucosal fluids
Hep C: primiarly through "large" percutaneous exposure to blood
Types of vaccines
Children are vaccinated against (14 things!):
Hep A and B
measles mumps rubella
Current antibiotic resistant organisms of note
CRGNB (carbapenem resistant G(-) bacilli)
Macrolide resistant Strep. pneumoniae
What are adverse effects of antibiotic use (not resistance related)?
allergy to AB
association with some other contemporary diseases (e.g. asthma, IBD)