Introduction To Human Development: Journey Through Life Cycle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction To Human Development: Journey Through Life Cycle Deck (95):
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Main subject of Medicine

Man

1

5 conceptual models

Biological
Sociocultural
Psychological/psychodynamic
Spiritual
Biopsychosocial

2

Model which focuses on the anatomy and physiology of human body

Biological model

3

Model that focuses on the context of human life
Growing circle of relationships

Sociocultural model

4

Dyad

Mother-child

5

Triad

Mother-father-child

6

A model that emphasizes the primacy of human experiences as shapers of behavior and wiring of human brain

Psychodynamic model

7

A process of transferring of past feelings, experiences, and memories to the present

Transference

8

Relationship with a force bigger than oneself

Spiritual model

9

Combination of biological, psychological, and social factors

Biopsychosocial model

10

Understanding how health or disease is affected by multiple levels of organization

Biopsychosocial model

11

Something wrong with the structures and functions of the body

Disease

12

Something wrong with the functions of the mind

Disorder

13

Interdisciplinary approach; looking into systems

Biopsychosocial model

14

Optimal environment for growth and development

Stable
Predictable events
Adults that can provide basic needs of children

15

Basic needs

Material needs
Protection from danger
Affection, acceptance, approval
Discipline, demands
New experience

16

Unconditional (3As)

Affection
Acceptance

17

Conditional
Linked to discipline and demands

Approval

18

First environment into which a child is born

Family

19

Unit most capable of providing basic needs

Family

20

Responsible for transmission of social rules and values

Adult (Family)

21

Theory that explains the development of a human as he/she resolves psychosocial crises in each stage

8 stages of psychosocial development

22

(Basic conflict)
Infancy

Basic trust vs. mistrust

23

(Basic conflict)
Oral

Basic trust vs. mistrust

24

(Basic conflict)
Toddler

Autonomy vs. shame

25

(Basic conflict)
Anal

Autonomy vs. shame

26

(Basic conflict)
Pre-school

Initiative vs. guilt

27

(Basic conflict)
Phallic

Initiative vs. guilt

28

School age

Industry vs. inferiority

29

Latency

Industry vs. inferiority

30

(Basic conflict)
Adolescence

Identity vs. role diffusion

31

(Basic conflict)
Early adult

Intimacy vs. isolation

32

(Basic conflict)
Middle age

Generativity vs. stagnation

33

(Basic conflict)
Old Age

Integrity vs. despair

34

Part of human life cycle
Total dependent state

Infancy

35

Infant capabilities

Tracking
Crying
Grasping
Reaching
Smiling
Babbling

36

6-8 months, stranger anxiety

Selective attachment

37

Relationship between the primary caregiver and the baby upon the response of the caregiver to the needs of the baby

Trust vs. Mistrust

38

Warmth, regularity, dependable affection, safe

Basic trust

39

Doubt or watchfulness until infant feels safe

Mistrust

40

Part of human life cycle
Clear evidence of emotions

Toddler

41

Part of human life cycle
Attachment
Selective attachment

Infancy

42

Part of human life cycle
Issue of control
Transitional objects
Magical thinking
Imaginary companion

Toddler

43

Toilet training
Discipline

Issue of control

44

Provide psychological comfort especially during emotional transition from dependence to independence

Transitional object

45

Attribution of causal relationships between thoughts/actions and events

Magical thinking

46

Creation of companion

Imaginary companion

47

Embarrassment and shame as a form of discipline

Autonomy vs. shame

48

Explores surroundings, asserting their will

Autonomy

49

Results from too much demands too soon, refuse to let children perform tasks of which they are capable, or ridicule early attempts at self-sufficiency

Shame

50

Biologically determined tendency of a young child to seek proximity to the parent during the time of stress
Survival of infants

Attachment

51

A powerful signal to entice adults to approach infant

Infant's cry

52

First step in long journey of life cycle

Infant-mother relationship attachment

53

Bowlby's Phases of
Attachment Development
Indiscriminate social responsiveness

Birth-2 months

54

Bowlby's Phases of
Attachment Development
Discriminating sociability

2-7 months

55

Bowlby's Phases of
Attachment Development
Intentional and focused attachment

7-24/30 months

56

Depends on the responsiveness and sensitivity of the infant's caretaker/mother

Infant-mother Relationship Attachment

57

Infant-mother Relationship Attachment
Mothers attuned to their babies

Secure attachment

58

Infant-mother Relationship Attachment
Overstimulating/understimulating mother
Cold/rejecting mother
Inept/abusive mother

Insecure attachment

59

Part of human life cycle
Remarkable physical, emotional growth, language development
More aware of body parts, concerns with body injury

Preschool age

60

Part of human life cycle
Oedipal complex
Triadic relationship with parents

Preschool age

61

Characterized by the struggling for attention of the parents of the opposite sex

Oedipal complex

62

Outcomes of Oedipal complex

Superego Formation
Gender role

63

Begins and completes their own actions for a purpose

Iniatiative

64

Results when the initiative does not produce desired results

Guilt

65

Part of human life cycle
Entry into the community
Period of remarkable physical, cognitive, social and moral growth
Growth correlates with brain maturation

School Age

66

Learn to make friends, show one's competency, seeks new role, no longer ascribed role at home

Ascribed vs. achieved status

67

Part of human life cycle
Latency phase
Same-sex grouping

School Age

68

Considered a period of quiescence that follows the period of intense triadic relationships

Latency phase

69

Grouping becomes polrized

Same-sex grouping

70

Going to school and learning how to master skills in order to produce something

Industry

71

Results when the tasks are not completed/poor mastery of skill

Inferiority

72

Part of human life cycle
Awkward period between the onset of sexual maturation and attaining adult status in society
Certain degree of angst, instability
Often described as an emergent life phase

Adolescence

73

Marked by hormonal changes
Results from the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

Puberty

74

Gray matter growth spurt just before puberty especially in frontal lobe
Extensive loss of cortical synapses

Synaptic pruning

75

Progressively thicken from birth by insulation, making these fibers efficient in their conductivity

Myelination process

76

Maturation of adolescent brain
Among the last connections to be established

Dosolateral prefrontal cortex
Emotional centers: limbic system, cerebellum

77

Midbrain reward system

Ventral tegmental area
Nucleus accumbens

78

12-14 years
Puberty brings a state of arousal and heightened sexual interest

Early adolenscence

79

14-17 years
New relationships, more complex, social environment
Sexual desires intensified

Middle adolescence

80

Identification with a subculture characterized by its shared interests
Loyalty to _____ becomes an obsession (Middle adolescence)

Peers

81

Crucial developmental task of adolescence

Identity

82

18-21 years
More comfortable patterns of behavior reflecting greater mastery and experience
Discriminative relationships
Patterns of coping, intimacy

Late adolescence

83

Part of human life cycle
Peak of biological development
Assumption of major social roles

Early adulthood

84

Capacity for exchange good feelings with others; capacity to love

Intimacy

85

Lack of relationships

Isolation

86

Part of human life cycle
Prime of one's life, career
Taking stock
Caught between one's parent and children
Fidelity and commitment

Middle Adulthood

87

Children grew up and parents are left

Empty nest syndrome

88

Want to teach, to generate ideas

Generativity

89

Nothing is happening in my life

Stagnation

90

Part of human life cycle
Retirement, economic security, dealing with losses

Late Adulthood

91

Lived a full life, fulfillment

Integrity

92

Wasted life, regret

Despair

93

Bonus years
Recapitulating
Contribution
Internal drive for reflection, spiritual connections

Summing up

94

Complex process influenced by heredity, nutrition, health, lifestyle, a host of environmental factors

Aging