Joints & Movements of the Vertebral Column #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Joints & Movements of the Vertebral Column #2 Deck (43):
1

What is the ant. longitudinal lig.?

- strong band extending along surfaces of vert bodies + attached to occipital bone extending as far as upper part of sacrum
- starts from foramen magnum

2

What is ant. long. lig. made up of?

long. fibres firmly fixed to intervert disc + margins of vert bodies

3

Where are the diff fibres of ant. long. lig. located?

- deep: extends from 1 vert to next
- superficial: extend over several vert

4

What is function of ligamentum flavum?

permits sep of lamina during flexion but at same time puts brake on it so limits not reached too quickly + so helps to prevent disc from injury

5

What is strucutre of ligamentum flavum?

- mainly elastic tissue
- connects lamina of adj vert extending from art capsules to place where lamina joins spine with only a small gap between lig. of each side

6

How fibres differ in post. long. lig?

- fibres near bone are shorter
- deeper into vert canal

7

What happens to ant. long. lig. + joints in flexion and sig of this?

- slack
- joints further apart so less stable

8

What happens to ant. long. lig. + joints in extension and sig of this?

- stretched
- more stable pos as spinous processes closer together

9

What happens to post. long. lig. + joints in flexion and sig of this?

- stretched
- joints further apart so less stable

10

What happens to post. long. lig. + joints in extension and sig of this?

- slack
- more stable pos as spinous processes closer together

11

How does lig. flavum control rate of movement and why?

- elastic fibres
- so don't get sudden movement and control how far/apart synovial joints become as its between synovial joints

12

Besides lig. flavum, which other movements control flexion + prevent overflexion?

- interspinous lig.
- supraspinous lig.

13

Where is interspinous lig. found?

between spinous processes

14

What are extrinsic muscles?

attached to another region as well as vert

15

Which muscle of the trunk is extrinsic?

latissumus dorsi

16

Which muscle of the trunk is intrinsic?

erector spinae

17

What is function of latissimus dorsi?

- allow lat. flexion

18

What is function of erector spinae and how does it do this?

allows you to sit + stand, keeps you upright
slow to fatigue

19

Where does psoas major attach and is function?

- from vert column + goes underneath inguinal lig. + attaches to lesser trochanter of femur
- move limb + trunk

20

List the phasic muscles

- rectus abdominis
- transversus abdominis
- int. oblique
- ext. oblique

21

List the post. trunk muscles in the thoracic region and which are extrinsic, intrinsic and deep

- extrinsic:
- trapezius
- lat dorsi
- serratus post.
- intrinsic:
- erector spinae
- deep:
- transvero-spinalis

22

What is trapezius attached to + when is it a muscle of the trunk?

- scapula, clavicle + base of skull, shoulder
- to all vert
- if fix limbs

23

What is lat dorsi attached to and its origin?

- arises from lat. part of back + attached to humerus, scapula
- thoracolumbar fascia

24

List the 3 parts of erector spinae + their attachments

1. Ilio-costalis - ilium to ribs
2. longissimus - fibres stretch over long no. of segments
3. spinalis - attached to spinous process

25

Where does transversospinalis attach + what is its function?

- from TP to TP + SP to SP
- proprioreceptor fibres feedback on what pos back is in + fine-tuning of back

26

What is function of trapezius?

shrug shoulders

27

Where is thoracolumbar fascia attached and its function?

- around ilium, sacrum + spinous processes
- stabilises pelvis + support lower back

28

Where is erector spinae found + what is its function?

- inside thoracolumbar fascia
- as it contracts, pushes against + tenses fascia

29

Which muscles are in contact with thoracolumbar fascia and their effects on it?

- TA
- IO
- gluteus maximus
- lat dorsi
- inc tension of fascia as they contract

30

Which muscles are encased by the fascia + what are their effects on it?

- erector spinae
- multifidus
- have pushing effect on fascia as contraction broadens belly of muscles + inc tension within sheath

31

What also inc tension of fascia?

movements of limbs + back

32

Where is intertransversarius found?

- between TP
- only in lumbar region

33

Where does quadratus lumborum attach + what is its function?

- to iliac crest
- allows platform for contraction of diaphragm in resp
- lat. flexor of trunk
- stabilises 12th rib

34

List the lat. trunk muscles

- QL
- PM

35

How is psoas major important for movement?

- lat. flexion
- contralat. rotation
- inc curv of lumbar vert (lumbar lordosis)

36

How is quadratus lumborum important for movement?

as it contracts, lat. flexes trunk

37

What are the fibres in PM like?

vert + oblique - from rib + ilium to TP

38

What are phasic muscles?

not used all the time but intermittently

39

What happens as RA relaxes?

body falls forwards

40

How do fibres in IO run?

superiomedially

41

What is function of TA?

ensures tone of region

42

How do fibres of EO run?

inferomedially

43

How do the fibres of IO + EO interact?

criss-cross into shape of parabolic curve - important to withstand forces