Flashcards in Just give me the c-answer Deck (19):
What gene's are involved in breast cancer?
Are they oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes?
How do they work?
Tumour suppressor genes
Recognising cells undergoing neoplastic changes and causing them to enter apoptosis
What does Bence-Jones proteins in urine indicate?
What is the definition of this disease?
What does CRABS stand for?
What sort of bone lesions will be present?
Proliferation of Ig-producing plasma cells
Calcium increase, Renal issues, Anaemia, Bone pain, Sensation (nerve damage)
Lytic bone lesions
What is the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)?
What virus’ do all patients presenting with ITP need tested?
Combination of increased platelet destruction and impaired platelet production caused by anti-platelet auto-antibodies
Virus’ = HIV and Hep C
Treatment = Prednisone, IV Ig and splenectomy
What are 4 signs of bleeding in ITP?
Petechiae - flat, red lesion that DO NOT blanch under pressure
Purpura - lesions caused by a collection of petechiae
Epistaxis - minor to severe bleed
Severe haemorrhage - 10% of patients
What virus is Burkitt’s lymphoma associated with?
What cells does it attack specifically?
What does Reed-Sternberg cells on pathological examination indicate?
What cells are effected?
Early stage vs Advanced stage treatment?
Early = chemo plus radiotherapy
Advanced = combination chemo
Definition of leukaemia (based on peripheral blood smear)
Chronic vs Acute
20% of WBC need to be blasts
Chronic = <5%
Acute = >20%
What does a “leucoerythromblastic film” indicate?
Bone marrow infiltrate, nucleated RBC and pre-myelocyte
Bone marrow biopsy
What cancer is linked to each marker;
AFP = liver and testicular
CEA = colonic
CA-125 = ovarian
What is the most common childhood cancer?
Does Downs increase or decrease the incidence?
What is the cure rate?
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
Downs increases the incidence
Cure rate = 80%
Which lymph nodes does testicular cancer usually metastasise to first?
What is the most common type of testicular cancer?
What congenital abnormality increases the risk of testicular cancer?
Germ cell - 95%
What cancer does the Philadelphia chromosome indicate?
Chronic myeloid leukaemia
When does uric acid nephropathy occur in cancer patient?
Why? Because of high levels of circulating blasts and cell breakdown
What are 3 complications of radiotherapy?
Delayed wound healing
Where do the following cancers most commonly metastasise to;
Prostate = bone/lumbar spine
Pancreas = liver
Stomach = liver and ovaries
Melanomas = liver, lung and brain
What are 4 tumour genes and what does each indicate?
PSA = prostate
CEA = colon
CA125 = gonadal and ovarian
CA 19.9 = pancreas
AFP = testicular
What are 4 signs of malignant change in a skin lesion?
Change in size or shape
Lymph node involvement
What medical conditions can cause raised CA125?
Pelvic inflammatory disease