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Flashcards in Just give me the c-answer Deck (19):
1

What gene's are involved in breast cancer?
Are they oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes?
How do they work?

P53, BRCA-1
Tumour suppressor genes
Recognising cells undergoing neoplastic changes and causing them to enter apoptosis

2

What does Bence-Jones proteins in urine indicate?
What is the definition of this disease?
What does CRABS stand for?
What sort of bone lesions will be present?

Multiple myeloma
Proliferation of Ig-producing plasma cells
Calcium increase, Renal issues, Anaemia, Bone pain, Sensation (nerve damage)
Lytic bone lesions

3

What is the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)?
What virus’ do all patients presenting with ITP need tested?
Treatment?

Combination of increased platelet destruction and impaired platelet production caused by anti-platelet auto-antibodies
Virus’ = HIV and Hep C
Treatment = Prednisone, IV Ig and splenectomy

4

What are 4 signs of bleeding in ITP?
Describe each

Petechiae - flat, red lesion that DO NOT blanch under pressure
Purpura - lesions caused by a collection of petechiae
Epistaxis - minor to severe bleed
Severe haemorrhage - 10% of patients

5

What virus is Burkitt’s lymphoma associated with?
What cells does it attack specifically?

EBV
B-cells

6

What does Reed-Sternberg cells on pathological examination indicate?
What cells are effected?
Early stage vs Advanced stage treatment?

Hodgkin’s lymphoma
B-cells
Early = chemo plus radiotherapy
Advanced = combination chemo

7

Definition of leukaemia (based on peripheral blood smear)
Chronic vs Acute

20% of WBC need to be blasts
Chronic = <5%
Acute = >20%

8

What does a “leucoerythromblastic film” indicate?
Next investigation?

Bone marrow infiltrate, nucleated RBC and pre-myelocyte
Bone marrow biopsy

9

What cancer is linked to each marker;
AFP?
CEA?
CA-125

AFP = liver and testicular
CEA = colonic
CA-125 = ovarian

10

What is the most common childhood cancer?
Does Downs increase or decrease the incidence?
What is the cure rate?

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
Downs increases the incidence
Cure rate = 80%

11

Which lymph nodes does testicular cancer usually metastasise to first?
What is the most common type of testicular cancer?
What congenital abnormality increases the risk of testicular cancer?

Lymph nodes
Germ cell - 95%
Cryptorchidism

12

What cancer does the Philadelphia chromosome indicate?

Chronic myeloid leukaemia

13

When does uric acid nephropathy occur in cancer patient?
Why?

During chemotherapy
Why? Because of high levels of circulating blasts and cell breakdown

14

What are 3 complications of radiotherapy?

Lymphoedema
Delayed wound healing
Proctitis
Telangestasia
Anaemia

15

Where do the following cancers most commonly metastasise to;
Prostate?
Pancreas?
Stomach?
Melanomas?

Prostate = bone/lumbar spine
Pancreas = liver
Stomach = liver and ovaries
Melanomas = liver, lung and brain

16

What are 4 tumour genes and what does each indicate?

PSA = prostate
CEA = colon
CA125 = gonadal and ovarian
CA 19.9 = pancreas
AFP = testicular

17

What are 4 signs of malignant change in a skin lesion?

Bleeding/ulceration
Change in size or shape
Itching
Lymph node involvement
Pain

18

What medical conditions can cause raised CA125?

Pancreatitis
endometriosis
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Uterine fibroids

19

Which vaccinations are contraindicated in chemo?
Which are withheld until after chemo?

Contraindicated = Measles, mumps and rubella and Polio
Withheld = Varicella and influenza are withheld