Kandpal- The Genome, Gene and Molecular Medicine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kandpal- The Genome, Gene and Molecular Medicine Deck (55):
1

What is integral in designing treatment options?

DNA sequence

2

What major enzyme is missing in Humans and is within chimps?

CMAH (CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase)

3

What does the enzyme CMAH do?

Converts CMP-Neu5Ac
to
CMP-Neu5Gc

4

How many basepairs deletions had occurred due to the loss of the CMAH activity?

92 basepairs

5

Due to the lack of CMAH enzyme, what are humans susceptible of?

Plasmodium falciparum

6

Since chimps have CMAH what problem are they susceptible of?

Pamosdium reichenowi

7

Name 2 type of DNA related treatment prescriptions for breast cancer patients.

Hormonal and Chemotherapy

8

Name a blood thinner that is based on genotype.

Warfarin (Coumadin)

9

What major enzyme is missing in Humans and is within chimps?

CMAH (CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase)

10

Name a gene that metabolizes (by hrydoxylating and other rxns) drugs

CYP (Cytochrome P450)

11

T or F, CYP can carry out reactions including hydroxylation?

Yes it can. Xenobiotis are hydroxylated and then excreted dur to CYP.

12

What is an alleles?

2 alternative forms of a gene or DNA sequence

13

What are the 2 copies of gene/chromsome made of?

Maternal and Paternal genes

14

If a geneotype of a cell has identical alleles what is the terminology of the genotype?

Homozygous

15

If a genotype of a cell has two non-identical alleles is termed as?

Heterozygous

16

In homozygote or heterozygote do you find a recessive trait?

Homozygote

17

What is the name of a phenotype manifesting in a heterozygote?

Dominant

18

Can CYP2C9 and Coumadin be altered?

Yes. Its called polymorphism

19

If a drug is inactivated faster, a small dose will not be an effective anticoagulant. What do you need to do, to have an effective treament?

Increase the dosage

20

If a drug takes too long to be inactivated, excess dose will cause bleeding. What needs to be corrected?

Decrease the dosage

21

If warfarin is given to patients carrying CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3 will cause what complications?

Increased bleeding. Hence why lower doses are given to these type of patients.

22

What does Coumadin inhibit?

VKORC1 (Vitamin K epoxide reductase)

23

What is the end product when VKORC1 converts vitamin K epoxide?

Reduced form of vitamin K

24

What factors are vitamin K dependent proteins?

2, 7, 9 and 10

25

What kind of polymer structure is DNA?

Polynucleotide

26

Name the 4 bases associated with DNA.

Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine

27

What is the base for RNA?

Uracil

28

What is the unit of a nucleotide?

Nucleotide monophosphate

29

What are nucleotides joined by?

Phophodiester

30

What are the 2 strands of DNA held together by?

Hydrogen bonds

31

What are the bases for Pyrimidines?

Cytosine, Thymine and Uracil

32

What are the bases for Purines?

Adenine and Guanine

33

How is a Nucleoside made?

Nitrogenous base + Sugar

34

What two components are needed to create a nucleotide?

Nucleosides + One or More Phosphat

35

When setting up a new nucleotide, which ends tend to attach to one another?

5' phosphate of one nucleotide forms phosphodiester bond with the 3' OH of the next nucleotide

36

Name 4 functions of a nucleotide.

1. Constituents of DNA and RNA
2.Cofactors in enzymatic reactions
3. Energy currency (ATP)
4. Cell signaling (GTP in G protein coupled receptor)

37

What are the function of nucleotides FAD and NAD?

Electron carriers

38

What are the functions of nucleotides Cyclic AMP and cGMP?

Secondary messengers

39

What are the functions of nucleotide Coenzyme A(CoA)

Carbon carrier in fatty acid metabolism

40

Griffith's Experiment was aimed to find out whether DNA or Protein was genetic material. What type of health issue did he use to get his findings?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

41

What are the 2 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae?

Virulent strain S (smooth) and Avirulent strain (Rough)

42

During griffith's experiment, avirulent bacteria was given to the mouse, what happened to the mouse?

Nothing, it survived

43

During griffith's experiment, heated virulent bacteria was given to the mouse, what happened to the mouse?

Nothing, it survived

44

During griffith's experiment, virulent bacteria was given to the mouse, what happened to the mouse?

It died

45

During griffith's experiment, avirulent bacteria and a heated killed virulent bacteria was given to the mouse, what happened to the mouse?

It died but this was a critical point as Griffith was able to extract the virulent bacteria

46

What rule postulates that A = T and C = G in double stranded DNA and not in a single stranded DNA?

Chargaff's rule

47

During zero order kinetics, denaturation of what bond causes the DNA to become single stranded?

Hydrogen bonds

48

What order of kinetics does renaturing occur when there are special conditions?

Second order. There is no first order

49

Which type of DNA absorbs more UV light?

Single stranded

50

What part of the DNA absorb UV light?

bases while the strand melts

51

What happens during UV absorbs for single stranded DNA?

20 to 30% linear increase

52

What happens during UV absorbstion for a double stranded DNA?

2 fold increase around Tm

53

What does heat do to the Hydrogen bonds?

Disrupts the bonding

54

Name 2 factors that are stabilizing agents?

Na+, K+ and GC/AT ratio

55

Name 2 chemicals which destabilize the DNA helix.

Urea and formamide