L2B - Neuroanatomy: History of Brain Mapping Flashcards Preview

PSYC1020 - Introduction to Psychology - Minds, Brains and Behaviour > L2B - Neuroanatomy: History of Brain Mapping > Flashcards

Flashcards in L2B - Neuroanatomy: History of Brain Mapping Deck (14):
1

Brain can be divided into...

  • Cerebrum (makes up the majority of the brain; including the cerebral cortex),
  • Cerebellum (separate division located behind the brain stem)
  • Brainstem

2

Cerebrum (Cerebral Hemispheres):

Two Hemispheres, divided by Longitudinal Fissure or Inter-Hemispheric Fissure

3

Cerebral Cortex:

Grey matter = The outermost surface layer of the cerebrum

  • Surface of the brain 2 to 4 mm thick
  • Contains the cell bodies of the brain’s neurons
  • Highly folded to maximize surface area. i.e. maximize amount of cortex that can fit inside skull
    • 'Hills' are called “Gyrus
    • ‘Valleys’ are called “Sulcus
    • These are used as road markers for research to find the way around the brain

White matter: underneath the grey matter is all the “wiring” (i.e. axons of the neurons, connecting to the spinal cord and to other areas of the cortex). Covered in fat (Meilin Sheath)

4

Anatomic terminology for directions/locations:

5

Cerebral Cortex – functional areas

6

Frontal Lobe:

Executive (reasoning, planning, problem solving, inhibitory control, memory) and motor functions

  • Broca's area = Speech coordination
  • Insula cortex = Working memory
  • Premotor cortex = Motor planning
  • Primary motor cortex = Movement (motor execution)

Broca's area

  • Mechanical expression of speech;
  • Damage: Intact comprehension but difficulty finding and expressing the right words (slow/non-fluent speech)

7

Temporal Lobe:

Hearing, comprehension, emotion and memory formation

  • Primary auditory cortex = Hearing
  • Wernicke's area = Language comprehension
    • Damage: Fluent, nonsensical speech due to inability to understand language
  • Limbic system
    • Amygdala = Fear (conditioning) and arousal; Responds to threats/danger
    • Hippocampus = Forming new memories (damage results in anterograde (no new memories), episodic amnesia)

8

Corpus callosum:

Connects hemispheres to allow communication

9

Primary motor (anterior central sulcus) & sensory (posterior central sulcus) cortexes:

Cortex area size of body part is correlated to the degree of sensitivity or fine motor control

10

Occipital lobe:

Visual perception and processing

  • Primary visual cortex = Visual perception
  • Higher visual areas = Process shape, colour, orientation, motion
  • Fusiform gyrus = Facial perception (damage (prosopagnosia) results in inability to recognise familiar faces)
  • Via inferior temporal lobe = Perception of objects for recognition
  • Via parietal lobe = Perception of objects for directing actions

11

Parietal lobe:

  • Sensory perception
    • Primary somatosensory cortex = Perception of touch and pain
  • Spatial attention (directing eye movements (attention) to explore visual world)
  • Linking vision with actions (by providing spatial location of objects around us for guiding actions)

12

Functional Brain Anatomy:

Specific functions can be localised to specific areas of the brain

Brain “mapping” = Identifying which part of the brain is responsible for a particular behaviour or function.

13

Homunculus:

  • Primary Sensory cortex and Primary Motor cortex
  • Brain function “mapped” by electrical stimulation
  • Brain stimulation leads to sensation or movement (muscle twitch)
  • Size of area on cortex determines sensitivity or fine motor control

14

Working Memory =

  • Remembering a piece of information like a phone number for short periods of time
  • Operation, eg. Maths
  • Reading shows superior working memory