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Kinematics (define)

spacial (space) and temporal (time) aspects of movement
i.e. velocity and angles


Kinetics (define)

Deals with the effects of forces upon the motions of material bodies or with changes in a physical system.

Forces the muscles generate or external forces of gravity, buoyancy of water


Types of Displacement:
a. Rotary
b. Translatory

a. Rotary: (angular displacement) Movement of a segment around a fixed axis. i.e. flexion / extension of tibia around knee joint.

b. Translatory: (linear displacement) Movement of a segment in a straight line. Occurring at the joint surface. i.e. sliding of the humeral head in glenoid fossa, anterior drawer test for ACL integrity.


Reference for Movement:
Axes and Planes of Motion (3)

1. X-axis Sagittal Plane
2. Y-axis Transverse Plane (Horizontal)
3. Z-axis Frontal Plane (Coronal)


Joint Classifications (3)

1. Synarthrodial: no appreciable motion. i.e. Cranial Sutures
2. Amphiarthrodial: not fixed, but not freely moving. i.e. Ribs to Sternum, Pubic Symphosis.
3. Diarthrodial: Synovial Fluid, Joint Capsule, Freely Moveable. The bony components are indirectly connected to one another by means of a joint capsule that encloses the joint.


Diarthrodial Joint Classifications (3)

1. SIMPLE: two bones articulating - MCP
2. COMPOUND: more than 2 bones - elbow, wrist
3. COMPLEX: can be simple or compound, but involves a disc or meniscus - knee, TMJ


Joint Degrees of Freedom (3)

hinge joint (elbow, PIP, DIP)
pivot joint (proximal radioulnar)
condyloid (MCP): concave surface slides over convex
saddle (CMC of Thumb): each joint surface is concave in one plane and concave in the other.
plane: carpal joints
ball-and-socket: glenohumeral, hip


Arthrokinematic Laws (2)

1. Convex on Concave:
the rotary and translatory movements are opposite (i.e. glenohumeral)

2. Concave on Convex:
the translatory and rotary motions occur in the same directions (i.e. MCP)


Joint Position (2)
Kinematic Chains (2)
figure 2-26 p. 95, 97

1. Open Chain (Packed): The Distal end of the chain in free to move, and one joint can move independently of the others in the chain. Or, a position other than closed.
2. Closed Chain (Packed): Both the proximal and distal ends of the chain remain fixed. Structures around the joint are in their tightest position. i.e. Squat, Push-ups (triceps)

Typically, complete extension = closed and flexion = open.


Joint Excursion / ROM / Goniometer / Angles

1. Active ROM exercises are when you do the exercises yourself.
2. Active-assisted ROM exercises are done by you and a helper.
3. Passive ROM exercises are when you cannot do the exercises by yourself or need someone to help you.
4. Resistive ROM exercises are when you are actively performing the exercises and you have someone resist the movement you are performing.


Cartilage (2)

1. Fibrocartilage: thicker, provides protection, shock absorbtion
2. Hyaline: thinner, lines joint surfaces, diarthrodial


Bone: Characteristics and Function

Hard Connective Tissue
Composition: Periosteum, Endosteum, Epiphysis, Diaphysis
Cortical: Compact / Cancellous: Spongy (trabeculae)
Osteoblasts: build / Osteoclasts: breakdown
Production of RBCs
Reservoir for Calcium
Movement / Levers


Muscle Fiber Types
Function drives composition / type

Type 1: Slow Twitch - oxidative metabolism (aerobic) - low tension for a long time; fatigue resistance
Type 2B: Fast Twitch - glycogen (anaerobic), can't sustain
Type 2A: Best of both worlds - rely on O2 and glycogen, more fatigue resistant than 2B.

Tonic: more slow twitch
Phasis: more fast twitch

Deeper Muscles: more tonic
Superficial Muscles: more phasic


Orientation (p. 116)

1. Longitudinal: fusiform; long fibers that run parallel to the axis of the muscle.
2. Pennate: oblique fibers coming off tendon
a. Unipennate: (i.e. FPL) obliquely set fascicles fan out on only one side of the central muscle tendon.
b. Bipennate: (i.e. RecFem) fibers obliquely set on both sides of a central tendon.
c. Multipennate: (i.e. Deltoid)

longitudinal: more ROM, Joint Excursion
Pennate: shorter, more tension generation


Roles of Muscles (p. 126)

a. Agonist: primary mover
b. Antagonist: muscle opposing agonist
c. Synergist: multiple muscles working together to produce movement.

i. Spurt: designed for mobility - origin further away from joint, distal attachment close to joint it's working at (i.e. biceps)
ii. Shunt: designed for stability - origin closer to the joint, distal insertion further away (i.e. brachioradialis)


Multi-Joint Muscles (p. 129)
Active/Passive Insufficiency

Resting Length: Optimal tension development

Active Insufficiency: Muscle is being simultaneously shortened at all joints it is working at.

Passive Insufficiency: Simultaneously lengthening at all joints. i.e. finger extensors when wrist is flexed.



Application of physical laws to living organisms.

Internal / External Forces
i.e. weight, weight of limb, gravity - external
muscle force - internal



the tendency of a force to create rotation or movement around an axis (T = Fd)


Center of Gravity / Center of Mass

point at which mass is centered around
central balance point

~ S1, S2


Lever Systems (3) p. 46
Lever: any rigid segment that rotates around a fulcrum.

1. Class 1: seesaw - Axis centered btwn external and internal force (i.e. AO Joint)

2. Class 2: wheelbarrow - external force lies btwn internal force and axis. limited examples in the body - standing up on toes

3. Class 3: internal force lies btwn external force and axis. greater range of motion. i.e. bending elbow, flexing knee.


Calculating Torque:
a. External Torque
b. Internal Torque

a. External Torque: (R x ra) + (W x wa) = T,ext
b. Internal Torque: (Fr x fa) = T,int

R = weight of limb
ra = COG
W = weight of dumbbell
wa = distance weight from axis
Fr = rotary force
fa = distance tendon inserting from axis