Lecture 16: Disease of the Upper RT 2 (Specht) Flashcards Preview

Cardiopulmonary (Estrada-Fall 2014) > Lecture 16: Disease of the Upper RT 2 (Specht) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 16: Disease of the Upper RT 2 (Specht) Deck (24):
1

where are CS localized in disease of upper RT?

at or below oropharynx

2

canine infectious respiratory disease aka:

Kennel Cough
Infectious tracheobronchitis

3

potential infectious agents of K9 infectious resp. dz**

Viruses: parainfluenza, adenovirus, distemper, influenza, pneumovirus
Bacteria: Bordetella, Mycoplasma, Strep

4

CS of K9 infectious resp. dz

-SUDDEN ONSET of severe cough*
-gagging, retching, nasal d/c
-recent history of expsure*
-usually NO signs of systemic illness*

5

Canine Influenza

5-8% mortality
-good prognosis
-supportive care
-prevent with standard sanitation

6

K9 infectious resp. dz prevention

-prevent exposure
-SQ and IN vax against PIV, CAV, CDV
-caution: intranasal vaccine given SC can cause liver necrosis!!

7

K9 infectious resp. dz Dx/Tx/Prognosis

Dx:
-presumptive based on Hx, CS, PE; CBC
-TTW,TXR may be indicated in progressive/systemic cases
-definitive dx: PCR**, culture
Tx:
-usually no Abx needed, self-limiting
+/- cough suppressants
-NO steroids
Prog: excellent if uncomplicated

8

collapsing trachea

dynamic narrowing of the tracheal lumen due to flattening of the cartilaginous rings and/or redundancy of dorsal tracheal membrane.
-most common at thoracic inlet, but can also occur at maintstem bronchi, intra or extra-thoracic trachea
-animal usually older, small breed, overweight

9

collapsing trachea CS

-worsening, loud, non-productive cough ("goose honk")**

10

Dx of collapsing trachea**

TXR:
-intrathoracic collapse visible on expiratory films**
-extrathoracic collapse visible on inspiratory films**
Fluoroscopy (id's dynamic processes)
Bronchoscopy if rads fail to confirm dx

11

cautions of collapsing trachea

be careful about stress**
anesthesia risk
concurrent dz

12

medical management of collapsing trachea

-reduce weight!!
-use harness
-min. exercise
-reduce inhaled irritants
-lomotil
+/- anti-tussives, glucocorticoids, bronchodilators (onlyif there is a small airway problem too)

13

tx of collapsing trachea

-emergency airway management (O2, anxiolytics, intubation, etc.)
-salvage procedures (internal stents, external prostheses)

14

collapsing trachea prog.

often progressive, depends on severity

15

laryngeal paralysis

failure of arytenoid cartilage to abduct during inspiration. Usually idiopathic but can be assoc. with trauma, tumors, or polyneuropathies/myopathies

16

laryngeal paralysis CS

-resp. distress
-stridor
-bark change
-cyanosis
-syncope (faint)
CS worse with increased resp. effort*
often neuro deficits such as trouble swallowing

17

laryngeal paralysis Dx

-laryngoscopy (sedation required)
-arytenoids stay closed or collapse in during inspiration and open slightly during expiration
-tests to R/O underlying problems

18

laryngeal paralysis Tx

-emergency airway management
-address underlying dz
-address obesity**
-env. factors
-sx intervention: unilateral arytenoid lateralization*

19

disadvantage of unilateral arytenoid lateralization

can't guard airway --> infection

20

laryngeal paralysis prog.

depends...ok with sx correction

21

brachiocephalic syndrome

complex of anatomic abnormalities including:
-stenotic nares
-elongated soft palate
-everted laryngeal saccules
-hypoplastic trachea
+/- laryngeal collapse

22

brachioceph. syndrome CS

-upper airway obstruction --> resp. distress, stertor, stridor, cyanosis, syncope
-worse with excitement, inc. temp.

23

brach. syndrome dx/tx/prog.

Dx:
-presumptive based on breed/history/CS
-laryngoscopy, rads
Tx:
-airway management
-sx correction of elongated soft palate, stenotic nares, everted laryngeal saccules
-weight management**
Prognosis:
-depends on severity: severe hypoplastic trachea and laryngeal collapse the worst
-sx corrected defects should cause no further CS

24

most common disease seen with laryngeal paralysis**

stridor (an abnormal, high-pitched, musical breathing sound. It is caused by a blockage in the larynx. It is most often heard when taking in a breath - web)