Lecture 2: Diencephalon and thalamus pgs 12-20 Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy Final > Lecture 2: Diencephalon and thalamus pgs 12-20 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 2: Diencephalon and thalamus pgs 12-20 Deck (52):
1

What makes up the gray matter in the telencephalon?

Cerebral cortex

2

What are the subcortical nuclei?

Caudate nucleus
Globus pallidus
Putamen
Amygdala
Claustrum

3

What makes up the white matter in the telencephalon?

Corpus callosum

4

What makes up the gray matter in the diencephalon?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Subthalamus

5

What are some other parts of the diencephalon other than the gray matter?

Pineal gland
Third ventricle
Internal capsule

6

What does the internal capsule contain?

Fibers that connect the thalamus to the cortex

7

What percentage of the neural tube bends during development of the forebrain?

90%

8

The ________________ grows laterally forming 2 cerebral hemispheres, then in a C-shape, folding back and over the diencephalon.

Telencephalon

9

The thalamus is the gateway to what structure?

Cerebral cortex

10

Each thalamus is linked to the ______________ cerebral cortex.

Ipsilateral (same side)

11

All the senses, except __________, relay through the thalamus.

Olfaction (smell)

12

What are the 3 functional groups of thalamic nuclei?

1) Specific relay nuclei
2) Association nuclei
3) Nonspecific/diffuse nuclei

13

What type of nuclei receives specific moor or sensory inputs, then relays the information to the primary motor and sensory areas of the cerebral cortex?

Specific relay nuclei

(LGN, MGN, VPL, VPM, VA, VL)

14

What nuclei have reciprocal connections with the large association areas of the cerebral cortex?

Association nuclei

(DM, A, Pulvinar, LD and LP)

15

What nuclei have diffuse connections primarily with the subcortical areas including the reticular formation of the brainstem, other thalamic nuclei, and the basal ganglia?

Nonspecific or diffuse nuclei

(CM, midline, and reticular nuclei)

16

Hearing ascends bilaterally with a stronger _________________ representation.

Contralateral

17

Where does the first neuron synapse in hearing?

medulla, ipsilateral side of the neuron

It then crosses in the medulla as well

18

Where is the 2nd synapse in hearing?

Inferior colliculus

19

What is the nuclei that is synapsed in for the 3rd synapse in hearing?

MGN

20

Where is hearing relayed to in the end?

Transverse temporal gyrus

21

What is the nucleus that neurons synapse in the thalamus for discriminative senses of the body?

VPL

22

What portion of the cerebral cortex do neurons synapse in for discriminative senses of the body?

Postcentral gyrus/paracentral lobule (contralateral side)

23

What thalamic nuclei contains neurons associated with pain and temperature of the body?

VPL

24

What portion of the cerebral cortex is associated with pain and temperature of the body?

Postcentral gyrus/paracentral lobule (contralateral side)

25

What portion of the cerebral cortex is associated with pain and temperature of the face?

Postcentral gyrus

26

What is the nucleus that neurons synapse in the thalamus for pain and temp of the face?

VPM

27

What is area 17 also known as?

Primary visual cortex

28

What is are areas 41 and 41 also known as?

Primary Auditory cortex

29

What are areas 1,2, and 3 also known as?

Primary somatosensory cortex

30

What is area 4 known as?

Primary motor cortex and premotor and supplementary motor cortex

31

What is the path of vision?

Retinal ganglion cell -> Optic nerve -> optic chiasm (x 1/2) -> optic tract -> LGN -> Area 17 (Occipital lobe - cuneus and lingula)

32

What is the path for hearing?

Organ of corti -> choclear nucleus -> lateral lemniscus -> inferior colliculus -> inferiour brachium -> MGN -> Area41&42 (Temporal lobe - transverse temporal gyrus)

33

What nucleus is linked with the cingulate gyrus and what does it do?

Anterior nucleus (A)

Involved in NEW memories

34

What nucleus is linked with the prefrontal cortex?

Dorsomedial nucleus

35

What nucleus is part of the limbic system and plays a major role in primitive drives and behavior, emotion, and cognition?

Dorsomedial nucleus

36

What nucleus is linked with the parietal-occipital-temporal association cortex?

Pulvinar

37

What is the pulvinar nuclei associated with?

Its involved in the integration and higher processing of different stimuli (visual, auditory, and somatosensory)

38

What nucleus receives information from the reticular formation of the brainstem?

REticular nucleus

39

What nucleus regulates the overall activity of the thalamus and determines if information will get passed to the cerebral cortex?

Reticular nucleus

40

What will happen if there is damage to nonspecific nuclei?

May lead to lowered awareness and coma following thalamic damage

41

Damage to what nucleus will result in contralateral homonymous hemianopia?

LGN damage

42

Damage to what nucleus will lead to decreased sensations from contralateral body?

VPL

43

Damage to what nucleus will cause decreased sensations especially pain, from the face?

VPM

44

Damage to what nucleus will cause central hearing deficit, minor dysfunction, subtle?

MGN

45

This pain syndrome usually follows a stroke involving a deep branch of the posterior cerebral artery. Following an initial contralateral sensory loss, sensations return but are altered with innocuous sensations causing pain (perversion of sensations). What is this?

Thalamic syndrome of Dejerine-Roussy

46

If someone feels a cotton ball rubbed on their arm and they feel it as a severe burning sensation, what might they have?

Thalamic syndrome of Dejerine-Roussy

47

Damage to the motor relay nuclei (VA/VL - premotor cortex) will result in __________________.

Motor disturbances

48

Some patients with basal ganglia disease (parkinsons, dystonia), may have selective lesions or implantations of what nuclei to try and alter their movement?

VA/VL - Motor relay nuclei

49

Patients that have had damage to the dorsomedial nuclei develop what?

Behavior disturbances (apathy, loss of social inhibitions, change in behavior, disconnection of stimuli from emotion, etc.)

50

What was an elective surgery done in order to try and change "crazy people" back in the day?

Prefrontal leucotomy (lobotomy) - to try and change their behavior

51

What disease is common with alcoholics?

Korsakoff's syndrome

52

What is Korsakoff's syndrome?

Disease common to alcoholics in which the DM nuclei and mammillary bodies are bilaterally degenerated. This causes inability to form new long-term memories as well as behavioral deficits. This includes confabulation, the tendency to fabricate false accounts of recent events.