Lecture 4 - Tuberculosis & Leprosy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4 - Tuberculosis & Leprosy Deck (31):
1

In what species is M. Tuberculosis found?

Only in humans

2

Species for M. Bovis?

Only in cows, rarely in humans

3

M. avium symptoms

TB like symptoms especially in those with AIDs

4

M. leprae causes

Leprosy in humans

5

M. TB is what kind of pathogen

Obligate human pathogen

6

Where does TB live in our body?

In macrophages

7

Is TB generation time fast or slow

Very slow

8

Why does the cell envelope look waxy?

Lots of mycelia acid

9

What si the use of mycolic acid?

Causes high resistance for TB and is impermeable to stains and dyes

10

What test can we use to determine the presence of mycolic acid?

G+ acid fast stain

11

For acid fast stain, what colour is positive?

Red, blue is negative

12

How many stages of TB are there?

3

13

TB Stage 1

Inhaled into the lungs

14

TB Stage 2

Happens 1-3 weeks after exposore. Phagocytosis is occurring in lungs and release more TB

15

TB Stage 3

Granulomas begin to form from macrophages. Lysosome fusing is inhibited and activated macrophages try to kill off TB. T cells try to start activating granuloma but it's usually too big

16

How do we test for TB?

Using a tuberculin test (protein purified derivative)

17

What is a positive TB test?

Red swollen spot 48 hours after injection

18

What is a definitive TB positive test?

When a patient goes from being neg - poz

19

What does a negative TB test mean?

- not infected
- highly immunocompromised
- very recently infected

20

What does a positive TB test mean?

- latent or active form of TB
- BCG vaccine was used previously

21

Is TB treatment fast or slow?

VERY SLOW

22

What drugs are used to treat TB?

Rifampicin and isoniazid

23

What is the BCG Vaccine

It's a living vacuuming from M. bovid, variable effectiveness and causes TB test to be positive

24

What effect does having HIV have on contraction of TB

x30 more likely, leading killer of HIV patients

25

Is leprosy fast or slow?

EXTREMELY SLOW

26

What physical changes occur when leprosy is contracted/

Damage to skin, nerves, limbs and eyes

27

How can leprosy be dianosied

Using our G+ ACID FAST STAIN!

28

Which is more infective, TB or leprosy?

TB

29

What is Tuberculoid Leprosy

Cell mediated immunity response where the macrophages consume the bacteria

30

What is Lepromatous Leprosy

No cell mediated immune responses and macrophages remain inactive. Disease survives and multiples

31

How is leprosy treated?

With long term use of antibiotics