Lipids & Fatty Acids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lipids & Fatty Acids Deck (16)
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1

Lipids & Fatty Acids Facts

Insoluble in water
Usually have an even # of Carbons
Principal form of storing energy
Play crucial roles in cellular functions

2

Structure

Polar head with long hydrocarbon chain
Can be fully saturated (no double bonds)
Can be unsaturated (double bonds ---> less H)

**Saturated with Hydrogens**

3

Nomenclature

Alpha Carbon is C1, number to the left
If 20 carbons with one double bond = 20:1 (delta #C)

**If there is a double bond at C3 &/or C6 it is an OMEGA FA (w-3 for both or C3, w-6 only at C6)

4

Melting Points of FA

Longer chains = HIGHER melting point
More "kinks" = very LOW melting point
Why? Saturated chains pack tightly together = more stable = harder to break bonds
Unsaturated (with kinks) can't pack as tightly

5

Solubility of FA

Longer chains = lower solubility
More double bonds = higher solubility

6

Triacylglycerols

Contain a Glycerol (3 OH groups off a 3 Carbon chain)
Contain 2 or 3 FA chains bound to the O groups (esterified)
Mixed- different FA chains
Simple - same FA chains
ENERGY STORAGE

7

Lipases

Enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of triacylglycerols
BREAK DOWN FATTY ACIDS for FUEL

8

Olive Oil, Butter, Beef Fat

Olive Oil (liquid) has a low melting point which means it is made up of mostly UNSATURATED FA chains (kinks)
Butter (soft solid) has a higher MP which means it has LESS unsaturated FA and more SATURATED FAs.
Beef Fat (hard solid) has the highest MP so it has the MOST SATURATED FAs and LEAST UNSATURATED

9

Waxes

High melting points
Esters of long chain saturated/unsaturated FA bound to long chain alcohols
FA-ester-long chain-OH

10

Lipid Types

1. Storage Lipids (Triacylglycerols)
2. Membrane Lipids

11

Membrane Lipids

1. PHOSPHOLIPIDS
a. Glycerophospholipids
b. Sphingolipids
2. GLYCOLIPIDS
a. Sphingolipids
b. Galactolipids (plants)
3. Archaeal Ether Lipids (Archaea)

12

Glycerophospholipids

Similar to triacylglycerol
Glycerol backbone
2 FA chains
phosphate group
Head group (alcohol?)

13

Phospholipid Sphingolipid

Two long hydrocarbon chains
-One from Sphingosine
-One from a FA BOUND TO THE SPHINGOSINE
-Phosphate
-Head Group (choline?)

14

Sphingosine

FA chain with one double bond
Alcohol on C3
Amine on C2 (this is what FA binds to)
Alcohol on C1 (head group binding site)

15

Glycolipid Sphingolipid

Same as a phospholipid sphingolipid in that there is one sphingosine, and one FA
Differs by a mono or oligosaccharide instead of phosphate-X

16

Sterols

4 Fused Rings
Hydroxyl Group
*Cholesterol*