Mechanisms of Antibiotics Flashcards Preview

Micro/Immuno Part 2 > Mechanisms of Antibiotics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mechanisms of Antibiotics Deck (13):
1

need to know about patient

-history
-age-pH of gastric acidity is higher in chilren
-pregnancy
-renal and hepatic function
-site of infection

2

pharmacokinetics

-all the ways the body manipulates the drug-absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
-longer half life can mean more time b/n doses or better CNS penetration

3

pharmacodynamics

-biochemical and physiological effects of the drug and its mechanism of action on bacteria

4

characteristics of an ideal antibiotic

-selective target
-bactericidal
-narrow spectrum
-high therapeutic index
-emergence of resistance is slow
-few adverse reactions
-various routes of administration
-good absorption
-good distribution to site of infection

5

antibiotic mechanisms of action

-interference will cell wall synthesis
-interference with protein synthesis
-interference with PM membrane function
-interference with nucleic acid pathways
-interference with metabolic pathway

6

current challenges with antibiotics

-extended spectrum B lactamases
-inducible amp c beta lactamases
-carbapenase producing gram negatives
-HA and CA MRSA
-inducible clindamycin resistance in Staph and strep
-staph with vancomycin resistance or reduced susceptbility
-VRE
-multi drug resistant pneumococcus (including vancomycin)

7

MIC

-minimal inhibitory concentration-amt needed to stop growth- not necessarily killing
-want 4x this level-this needs to be low

8

MBC

-minimal bacteriocidal concentration-lowest [ ] to kill organism

9

where do antibiotics come from?

-environment
-only 8 new since 1998
-natural/semisynthetic/synthetic

10

lipoglycopeptides

-telavancin
-gram pos skin and soft tissue infections
-structurally related to vanco

11

cyclic lipopeptides

-daptomycin
-gram pos including MRSA
-binds to the bacterial membrane and causes rapid depolarization of the PM-inhibition of DNA RNA and protein synthesis

12

glycylcyclines

-tigecycline
-gram pos and neg (MRSA)
-similar mech as tetracycline

13

oxazolidinones

-linezolid
-MRSA and VRE
-inhibits protein synthesis by harming 50s