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Flashcards in Mental Health Terms Deck (52):
1

Affect

A psychological term for an observable expression of emotion

2

Aggression

Any act that is intended to cause pain, suffering, or damage to another person

3

Alienation

The state of being emotionally separated from others and from one’s own feelings

4

Antidepressants

Medications used to treat depression

5

Antisocial behavior

A pattern of behavior that is verbally or physically harmful to other people, animals, or property, including behavior the severely violates social expectations for a particular environment

6

Antisocial personality disorder

A behavior disorder developed by a small percentage of children with conduct disorder whose behavior does not improve as they mature. Also known as sociopathic or psychopathy

7

Anxiety/anxiety disorders

An unpleasant emotion triggered by anticipation of future events, memories of past events, or ruminations about the self

8

Apathy

Can be defined as an absence or suppression of emotion, feeling, concern or passion, and it is an indifference to things generally found to be exciting or moving

9

Applied psychology

The area of psychology in which basic theory and research are applied to actual problems faced by individuals on a daily basis

10

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Disorder characterized by attentional deficit and/or hyperactivity—impulsivity more severe than expected for a developmental age

11

Autism

A severe psychological disorder that first appears in early childhood and is characterized by impaired social interaction and language development, and other behavioral problems

12

Autonomic nervous system

The nervous system responsible for regulating automatic bodily processes, such as breathing and heart rate. The autonomic system also involves the processes of metabolism, or the storage and expenditure of energy

13

Avoidance learning

An individual’s response to avoid an unpleasant or stressful situation; also known as escape learning

14

Behavior therapy

A goal-oriented, therapeutic approach that treats emotional and behavioral disorders as maladaptive learned responses that can be replaced by healthier ones with appropriate training

15

Biofeedback

A technique that allows individuals to monitor their own physiological processes so they can learn to control them

16

Bipolar disorder

A condition (traditionally called manic depression) in which a person alternates between the two emotional extremes of depression and mania (an elated, euphoric mood)

17

Body image

The subjective conception of one’s own body, based largely on evaluative judgments about how one is perceived by others

18

Central nervous system

In humans, that portion of the nervous system that lies within the brain and spinal cord; it receives impulses from nerve cells throughout the body, regulates bodily functions, and directs behavior

19

Classical conditioning

The process of closely associating a neutral stimulus with one that evokes a reflexive response so that eventually the neutral stimulus alone will evoke the same response

20

Cognitive behavior therapy

A therapeutic approach based on the principle that maladaptive moods and behavior can be changed by replacing distorted or inappropriate ways of thinking with thought patterns that are healthier and more realistic

21

Defense mechanisms

Unconscious strategies for or reducing threatening feelings, such as fear and anxiety

22

Delay of gratification

The ability to forgo an immediate pleasure or reward in order to gain a more substantial one later

23

Delusion/delusional disorders

Beliefs that are in stark contrast to reality, often having to do with persecution or an exaggerated sense of importance or glory

24

Depression

An emotional state or mood characterized by one or more of these symptoms: sad mood, low energy, poor concentration, sleep or appetite changes, feelings of worthlessness or hopelessness, and thoughts of suicide

25

Desensitization

A behavior modification technique used to combat phobias and other irrational fears

26

Drug therapy

Medications administered to help people suffering from psychological illnesses

27

Ego

Is that portion of the personality that imposes realistic limitations on the id

28

Emotional development

The process by which infants and children begin developing the capacity to experience, express, and interpret emotions

29

Emotional intelligence

The ability to perceive and constructively act on both one’s own emotions and the feelings of others

30

Empathy

The capacity to vicariously experience and understand the thoughts and feelings of another person by putting oneself in that person’s place

31

Extroversion

A term used to characterize people who are typically outgoing, friendly, and open toward others

32

Forgetting curve

The general, predictable pattern of the process of forgetting learned information

33

Identity/identity formation

A person’s mental representation of who he or she is

34

Id

In psychoanalytic theory, the most primitive, unconscious element of human personality

35

Impulse control disorders

A psychological disorder characterized by the repeated inability to refrain from performing a particular action that is harmful either to oneself or others

36

Inferiority complex

A psychological condition that exists when a person’s feelings of inadequacy are so intense that daily living is impaired

37

Introversion

A commonly used term for people who are quiet, reserved, thoughtful, and self-reliant and who tend to prefer solitary work and leisure activities

38

Mania

A description of the condition opposite depression in manic-depressive psychosis, or bipolar disorder. It is characterized by a mood of elation without apparent reason

39

Mental imagery

Picture created by the imagination with no visual stimulus required

40

Narcissism

Excessive preoccupation with self and lack of empathy for others

41

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Mental illness characterized by the recurrence of intrusive, anxiety-producing thoughts (obsessions) accompanied by repeated attempts to suppress these thoughts through the performance of certain irrational, often ritualistic, behaviors (compulsions)

42

Operant conditioning

Approach to human learning based on the premise that human intelligence and will operate on the environment rather than merely respond to the environment's stimuli

43

Panic/panic disorders

An acute feeling of intense fear, accentuated by increased heart rate, shortness of breath, sweating, and mild convulsions

44

Passive aggressive personality

Its main distinguishing feature is indirect resistance to the demands or expectations of others through stubbornness, forgetfulness, inefficiency, procrastination, and other covert means. Rather than refusing outright to perform a task, the passive-aggressive person will do it badly or procrastinate until the deadline for its completion has passed

45

Placebo effect

In research, a scientifically significant response that cannot be explained by physiological variables and is assumed to be psychological in origin

46

Psychoanalysis

A method of treatment for mental, emotional, and behavioral dysfunctions as developed by Sigmund Freud

47

Psychosis

A symptom of mental illness characterized by a radical change in personality and a distorted or diminished sense of objective reality

48

Rapid eye movement

The stage of sleep most closely associated with dreaming

49

Self-actualization

A prominent term in humanistic psychology that refers to the basic human need for self-fulfillment

50

Self-esteem

A prominent term in humanistic psychology that refers to the basic human need for self-fulfillment

51

Self-fulfilling prophecy

An initial expectation that is confirmed by the behavior it elicits

52

Superego

In psychoanalytic theory, the part of the human personality that represents a person's inner values and morals; also known as conscience