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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (20):
1

What 5 things is ethics NOT the same as

Feelings
Religion
Laws
Cultural norms
Science

2

What is the definition of ethics

Well founded standard of right and wrong that prescribes what humans ought to do

3

What are the 3 standards of ethics

1. Reasonable obligations to refrain from rape etc

2. Virtues such as: honesty, compassion and loyalty

3. Standards related to rights = such as freedom

4

What is normative theory

Propose some principle for distinguishing right actions from wrong actions

5

Types of normative theories

Consequentialist = Moral evaluation is based on end consequences of the action

Ethical egoism
Ultilitarianism
Virtue ethics

Non-consquentialist = Moral evaluation is based on the moral agents intention behind the action

Kant
Rights Theories
Professional codes of conduct

6

What is consequentialism

If consequences are good, then the act is right

If they are bad then the act is wrong

7

What is non-consequentialism

Right and wrong actions are determined by the intention of the action or the rule rather than the consequence

8

What is Virtue ethics

Based on character development

9

What is ethical egoism

Always act in our own self-interest

Look out for #1

10

Arguments for ethical egoism

We know our own wants and needs, we are best fit to pursue them

We know desires of others only imperfectly

Looking out for others is distruptive

Making others the object of charity is demeaning to them

11

Arguments against ethical egoism

Cannot provide solutions to conflicts of interest

Logically inconsistent = an action is both right and wrong

Egoism is an arbitrary theory = we divid people into types and then say "I deserve X, and you dont"

12

What is altruism

Acting for the sake of other peoples interests

13

Name the two types of altruism and briefly describe them

Psychological = people naturally act for each others sake

Ethical = people ought to act with each others interests in mind

14

What did Aristotle notion on virtue

If we can focus on being good people, the right actions will follow

15

What was Aristotle view on the mean between extremes

Vice (Deficiency)
Virtue (Golden Mean)
Vice (Excess)

The right action is always the midpoint between two extremes

16

What is Ultilitarianism

we should act to produce the greatest possible balance of good over bad for everyone affected by our actions for the longest duration.

17

What are the 3 basic insights of Utilitarianism

1. Morality is to make the world a better place
2. Morality is about producing good consequences, not having good intentions
3. Do whatever to bring the most benefit to all of humanity

18

What is the principle of Utility

The greatest amount of good (happiness) for the greatest number of people for the greatest duration

19

What is Act Utilitarianism

Looks at the consequences of each individual act and works out the utility each time an act is performed

20

What is Rules Utilitarianism

Looks at the consequences of having everyone follow a particular rule